All Courses & Clerkships

MEDU 7520 Medical Spanish - Section 10 Intermediate Medical Spanish with Canopy Learn, Levels II & III
Credits:
0.5
Directors:
Elizabeth R. Lorbeer
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Canopy Learn, the Canopy Medical Spanish training course teaches English-speaking providers the skills needed to communicate effectively with Spanish-speaking patients.  With a modular lesson design, this elective can be taken at your own pace. Relevant for all proficiency levels: with three progressive course levels, it’s appropriate for beginners who have little or no prior knowledge of Spanish. Each level is a 12-hour commitment. Reading, writing, listening, and speaking exercises provide learners a diverse, interactive blend of activities that emulate language learning with a tutor. There is a custom written and produced Telenovela focus on the most common practitioner-patient interactions, demonstrating the factual context in which medical Spanish is used.

Prerequisites:  Students should have an intermediate Spanish level proficiency (usually equivalent to three to four college semesters of Spanish).  Learner must achieve a score of 70% pass on the Canopy Pre-Course Assessment Test to enroll in Levels II & III.  The assessment test is available at: http://learn.canopyapps.com/courses/16/trial .

Offered:  All blocks available

Max Number of Students:  Requires course director approval.

Objectives:

Upon completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

  • Build linguistic capacity, enabling the student to build rapport with Spanish-speaking patients better to provide efficient and compassionate care.
  • Acquire specialized medical vocabulary across a board spectrum of commonly-encountered medical scenarios.
  • Gain a deepened awareness of the cultural diversity found in the Spanish-speaking world in addition to an appreciation for the necessity of heightened cultural sensitivity.
ALHS 7510 Selected Topics in Allied Health Sciences
Credits:
0.5
Directors:
Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

Objectives:

Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

ALHS 9410 Equine-assisted Therapies
Credits:
2,4
Directors:
Tam Homnick
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Equine-assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) is a rapidly expanding field that includes hippotherapy and therapeutic riding. The rhythmic three-dimensional movement of the horse moves the body in a manner similar to the human gait. This movement provides unique neuromuscular stimulation, the effects of which can be observed in the speech and movement of riders. Participants vary in age from 2 to 90 years, with challenges just as variable. The Cheff Center is a leader in the field of EAAT.

This hands-on experience allows students to explore the field of EAAT, both as a facilitator and participant. Students observe the effects of EAAT on a wide range of individuals with special needs - emotional, cognitive, and physical. Additionally, students are given the opportunity to participate in equine-facilitated learning sessions.

Participation in EAAT introduces students to an alternative therapy that complements more traditional forms of medical treatment. EAAT works holistically, providing assistance with everything from decreased muscle tone to cognitive and behavioral challenges. In addition to the measurable benefits (eg, improved strength, greater flexibility, increased verbal communication), EAAT serves to develop important communication skills in patients and providers alike.

As prey animals, horses are vulnerable to attack and seek feedback from their surroundings at all times. Effective communication with a horse requires a unique understanding of the importance of nonverbal cues, both from the horse and from us. Unsurprisingly, it also requires a great deal of patience and understanding, which translates directly to physicians’ work with vulnerable patients. A goal of this course is to cultivate skills that can translate from the barn to the hospital.

If taken as a 4-week clerkship, the student is expected to complete a focused literature review on a topic in EAAT or equine-facilitated learning, and present their findings to the Cheff Center staff.

Offered: June – July, Mid-September – Mid-December, Mid-January - April

Objectives:
  • Identify the benefits of EAAT, including therapeutic riding and hippotherapy.
  • Understand the key components of non-verbal communication – kinesics (body language), proxemics (space), and tone of voice.
  • Develop an understanding of the importance of culture to achieve compliance.
  • Practice leadership skills and realize the importance of boundaries.
ANES 7510 Selected Topics in Anesthesiology - Section 1 Overview of Anesthesiology
Credits:
0.5
Directors:
George, Uggeri
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This section will provide an introduction to the specialty of Anesthesiology. Each day the student will be exposed to a different facet of the specialty. Daily assignments might include observing general anesthesia, pediatric anesthesia, regional anesthesia, cardiac anesthesia, neuro-anesthesia, obstetrical anesthesia, and/or outpatient anesthesia.

Objectives:
  • Upon completion, the student will be able to describe the role and duties of a practicing anesthesiologist in an evolving health care environment
  • The student will be able to describe the purpose of surgical anesthesia
  • The student will be able to describe the differences between general anesthesia, regional anesthesia, and monitored anesthesia care
  • The student will be able to describe various procedures performed routinely in the provision of anesthesia care
  • The student will understand various factors that influence patient safety in the surgical setting
ANES 7510 Selected Topics in Anesthesiology - Section 2 Pharmacology of Anesthetic Agents
Credits:
0.5
Directors:
George, Uggeri
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This section will provide an introduction to the wide range of pharmacologic agents used within our specialty. Each day the student will be assigned to observe the provision of surgical anesthesia with an emphasis on the use of different families of pharmacological agents. Daily assignments will be made to illustrate the use of local anesthetics, sedatives and hypnotics, inhalational anesthetics, muscle relaxants, and other agents.

Objectives:
  • Upon completion, the student will be able to describe the role and duties of a practicing anesthesiologist in an evolving health care environment
  • The student will be able to describe various families of anesthetic agents and their uses
  • The student will be able to describe the side effects of various anesthetic agents, with an emphasis on respiratory depression, and its treatment
  • The student will be able to describe various economic factors effecting the provision of anesthetic agents such as drug shortages, product recalls, formulary design, and the anesthesia care team
  • The student will understand various factors that influence patient safety in the surgical setting
ANES 7510 Selected Topics in Anesthesiology - Section 3 Pain Management
Credits:
0.5
Directors:
George, Uggeri
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This elective occurs in an ambulatory Pain Clinic setting where students will be exposed to patients referred for acute and chronic pain management. Students will attend daily clinic and will have assigned outside reading. Students will be exposed to the indications for pain management referral, as well as patient evaluation, drug interactions, and follow-up needs. Student schedules will be arranged so that the total time commitment will average 25-30 hours per week.

Objectives:
  • Upon completion, the student will be able to describe the role and duties of pain management specialists
  • The student will learn introductory knowledge of various pharmacologic approaches to pain management
  • Students will be able to describe patients for whom pain management referral is appropriate
  • Students will be exposed to a variety of nerve blocks used in the management of painful conditions
  • The student will be able to distinguish between the different types of pain
ANES 9210 Anesthesia Research
Credits:
4,5,6,7,8
Directors:
Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

Objectives:

Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

ANES 9220 Selected Topics in Anesthesiology
Credits:
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
Directors:
Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

Objectives:

Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

ANES 9410 Anesthesiology
Credits:
2,4
Directors:
George, Uggeri
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This is a comprehensive overview of anesthesia to include pre-, intra- and post-operative care and evaluation of surgical patients. Students will spend equal time in the pre-operative evaluation area; providing anesthesia during a case; and also post-operative evaluation. Student will develop familiarity with intubation techniques, the difficult airway, operative monitoring, regional anesthesia, and risk stratification.

Offered:  All weeks

Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

  • Describe the role and duties of an anesthesiologist.
  • Discuss the pharmacology of common anesthetic agents.
  • Manage the airway of an uncomplicated, unconscious apneic patient.
  • Describe the risks and benefits of regional, general and sedation anesthesia.
  • Understand and recognize the challenges in anesthetizing patients with difficult airways or other pre-existing conditions.
  • Preform a directed pre-anesthetic medical history and exam.
ANES 9420 Pain Management
Credits:
2
Directors:
Chafty
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Pain is prevalent in treatment of patients. The students will receive primarily acute pain management training while doing their anesthesia elective in the hospital. The pain management program is in an outpatient program done through the Kalamazoo Anesthesiology Pain Consultants. The student will be part of a team that includes physicians, physician's assistants, psychologists, nurses, occupational therapists, and physical therapists. There may be the occasional inpatient pain consult that the student will attend with the physician, but the vast majority of the training is done in an outpatient pain center and primarily deal with chronic, nonmalignant pain. By the end, the student should understand some common chronic pain issues and develop a considerate and thoughtful approach to management of these pain problems.

Offered: Only open to one student per block. Prior approval required.

Objectives:
  • Obtain an accurate and comprehensive history from the patient.
  • Perform a rational and thorough physical examination.
  • Try to focus as appropriate the history and physical to the patient's active pain issue.
  • Use the information gathered from the history and physical, as well as appropriate radiologic studies and labs, to create a problem list.
  • Try to generate a differential diagnosis from the active problem list.
  • Begin to develop a plan based on the problem list.
  • Present that problem list and differential diagnosis to the pain team.
  • Integrate learning based upon reading and experiences in the pain clinic to broaden the student's understanding of chronic pain management.
  • Begin to learn some block techniques that the student will apply as a resident and physician.
  • Understand the use of the multi-disciplinary approach to pain management.
AWAY 7110 Away elective at a non-LCME-accredited site
Credits:
1,2,3,4
Directors:
Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Medical student participation in electives for credit away from the medical school is a privilege that is optional and not required for advancement or graduation. Students in Foundations of Medicine may not register for an elective away from the medical school if they have failed the initial summative examination in a course during the current or previous term.

The prefix abbreviation “AWAY” designates a curriculum elective for credit with content approved by the medical school even though the medical school faculty do not directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students. Different numbers are used for away electives in Foundations of Medicine and Clinical Applications, and for away electives at a Non-LCME accredited site and at a LCME accredited site:

AWAY 7110     Away elective at a non-LCME-accredited site (taken after completing four Foundations of Medicine electives but prior to completing the first third-year clerkship)

AWAY 7120     Away elective at an LCME-accredited site (taken after completing four Foundations of Medicine electives but prior to completing the first third-year clerkship)

AWAY 9110     Away elective at a non-LCME-accredited site (taken after completing the first third-year clerkship)

AWAY 9120     Away elective at an LCME accredited site (taken after completing the first third-year clerkship)

Medical school approval is required of all medical student curriculum experiences away from the medical school to assess the awarding of academic credit, assure that it does not adversely affect the student’s academic progress, and address concerns of student safety, risk, liability, and potential impact on the financial aid status of the student. Electives that are away are graded as Pass/Fail.

A maximum of one of the four required one-week electives in Foundations of Medicine designated by the prefix, AWAY) may be performed at a site that is not affiliated with the medical school and for which the medical school faculty do not directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students, with prior approval of the associate dean for Educational Affairs.

A maximum of 12 weeks of fourth-year elective clerkships or experiences (designated by the prefix, AWAY) may be performed at sites that are not affiliated with the medical school and for which the medical school faculty do not directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students (eg, approved electives at other LCME-accredited medical schools), including a maximum of 6 weeks at non-LCME-accredited sites, with prior approval of the associate dean for Educational Affairs.

Objectives:

You will be required to identify four self-directed learning objectives. Upon completion of this elective, you will be asked to reflect on the following two questions:

  1. How did you identify, analyze, and synthesize relevant information to achieve your two objectives?
  2. How did you appraise the credibility of your information sources?
AWAY 7120 Away elective at an LCME-accredited site
Credits:
1,2,3,4
Directors:
Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Medical student participation in electives for credit away from the medical school is a privilege that is optional and not required for advancement or graduation. Students in Foundations of Medicine may not register for an elective away from the medical school if they have failed the initial summative examination in a course during the current or previous term.

The prefix abbreviation “AWAY” designates a curriculum elective for credit with content approved by the medical school even though the medical school faculty do not directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students. Different numbers are used for away electives in Foundations of Medicine and Clinical Applications, and for away electives at a Non-LCME accredited site and at a LCME accredited site:

AWAY 7110     Away elective at a non-LCME-accredited site (taken after completing four Foundations of Medicine electives but prior to completing the first third-year clerkship)

AWAY 7120     Away elective at an LCME-accredited site (taken after completing four Foundations of Medicine electives but prior to completing the first third-year clerkship)

AWAY 9110     Away elective at a non-LCME-accredited site (taken after completing the first third-year clerkship)

AWAY 9120     Away elective at an LCME accredited site (taken after completing the first third-year clerkship)

Medical school approval is required of all medical student curriculum experiences away from the medical school to assess the awarding of academic credit, assure that it does not adversely affect the student’s academic progress, and address concerns of student safety, risk, liability, and potential impact on the financial aid status of the student. Electives that are away are graded as Pass/Fail.

A maximum of one of the four required one-week electives in Foundations of Medicine designated by the prefix, AWAY) may be performed at a site that is not affiliated with the medical school and for which the medical school faculty do not directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students, with prior approval of the associate dean for Educational Affairs.

A maximum of 12 weeks of fourth-year elective clerkships or experiences (designated by the prefix, AWAY) may be performed at sites that are not affiliated with the medical school and for which the medical school faculty do not directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students (eg, approved electives at other LCME-accredited medical schools), including a maximum of 6 weeks at non-LCME-accredited sites, with prior approval of the associate dean for Educational Affairs.

Objectives:

You will be required to identify four self-directed learning objectives. Upon completion of this elective, you will be asked to reflect on the following two questions:

  1. How did you identify, analyze, and synthesize relevant information to achieve your two objectives?
  2. How did you appraise the credibility of your information sources?
AWAY 9110 Away elective at a non-LCME-accredited site
Credits:
2,3,4,5,6,7,8
Directors:
Gibson
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Medical student participation in electives for credit away from the medical school is a privilege that is optional and not required for advancement or graduation. Students in Foundations of Medicine may not register for an elective away from the medical school if they have failed the initial summative examination in a course during the current or previous term.

The prefix abbreviation “AWAY” designates a curriculum elective for credit with content approved by the medical school even though the medical school faculty do not directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students. Different numbers are used for away electives in Foundations of Medicine and Clinical Applications, and for away electives at a Non-LCME accredited site and at a LCME accredited site:

AWAY 7110     Away elective at a non-LCME-accredited site (taken after completing four Foundations of Medicine electives but prior to completing the first third-year clerkship)

AWAY 7120     Away elective at an LCME-accredited site (taken after completing four Foundations of Medicine electives but prior to completing the first third-year clerkship)

AWAY 9110     Away elective at a non-LCME-accredited site (taken after completing the first third-year clerkship)

AWAY 9120     Away elective at an LCME accredited site (taken after completing the first third-year clerkship)

Medical school approval is required of all medical student curriculum experiences away from the medical school to assess the awarding of academic credit, assure that it does not adversely affect the student’s academic progress, and address concerns of student safety, risk, liability, and potential impact on the financial aid status of the student. Electives that are away are graded as Pass/Fail.

A maximum of one of the four required one-week electives in Foundations of Medicine designated by the prefix, AWAY) may be performed at a site that is not affiliated with the medical school and for which the medical school faculty do not directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students, with prior approval of the associate dean for Educational Affairs.

A maximum of 12 weeks of fourth-year elective clerkships or experiences (designated by the prefix, AWAY) may be performed at sites that are not affiliated with the medical school and for which the medical school faculty do not directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students (eg, approved electives at other LCME-accredited medical schools), including a maximum of 6 weeks at non-LCME-accredited sites, with prior approval of the associate dean for Educational Affairs.

 

Objectives:

You will be required to identify four self-directed learning objectives. Upon completion of this elective, you will be asked to reflect on the following two questions:

  1. How did you identify, analyze, and synthesize relevant information to achieve your two objectives?
  2. How did you appraise the credibility of your information sources?

 

AWAY 9120 Away elective at an LCME-accredited site
Credits:
2,3,4,5,6,7,8
Directors:
Gibson
Description:

Medical student participation in electives for credit away from the medical school is a privilege that is optional and not required for advancement or graduation. Students in Foundations of Medicine may not register for an elective away from the medical school if they have failed the initial summative examination in a course during the current or previous term.

The prefix abbreviation “AWAY” designates a curriculum elective for credit with content approved by the medical school even though the medical school faculty do not directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students. Different numbers are used for away electives in Foundations of Medicine and Clinical Applications, and for away electives at a Non-LCME accredited site and at a LCME accredited site:

AWAY 7110     Away elective at a non-LCME-accredited site (taken after completing four Foundations of Medicine electives but prior to completing the first third-year clerkship)

AWAY 7120     Away elective at an LCME-accredited site (taken after completing four Foundations of Medicine electives but prior to completing the first third-year clerkship)

AWAY 9110     Away elective at a non-LCME-accredited site (taken after completing the first third-year clerkship)

AWAY 9120     Away elective at an LCME accredited site (taken after completing the first third-year clerkship)

Medical school approval is required of all medical student curriculum experiences away from the medical school to assess the awarding of academic credit, assure that it does not adversely affect the student’s academic progress, and address concerns of student safety, risk, liability, and potential impact on the financial aid status of the student. Electives that are away are graded as Pass/Fail.

A maximum of one of the four required one-week electives in Foundations of Medicine designated by the prefix, AWAY) may be performed at a site that is not affiliated with the medical school and for which the medical school faculty do not directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students, with prior approval of the associate dean for Educational Affairs.

A maximum of 12 weeks of fourth-year elective clerkships or experiences (designated by the prefix, AWAY) may be performed at sites that are not affiliated with the medical school and for which the medical school faculty do not directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students (eg, approved electives at other LCME-accredited medical schools), including a maximum of 6 weeks at non-LCME-accredited sites, with prior approval of the associate dean for Educational Affairs.

 

Objectives:

You will be required to identify four self-directed learning objectives. Upon completion of this elective, you will be asked to reflect on the following two questions:

  1. How did you identify, analyze, and synthesize relevant information to achieve your two objectives?
  2. How did you appraise the credibility of your information sources?
BINF 7210 Applied Clinical Informatics I: Fundamentals of Biomedical Informatics; Data Acquisition and Management; Clinical Decision Support
Credits:
7
Directors:
Brown, Walsh
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This course presents an overview of biomedical informatics theories, methods, and techniques. The main features of each division of the field of biomedical informatics (bioinformatics, translational informatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics and public health informatics) are described and analyzed. Social, economic, ethical, cultural, environmental, historical, and other factors driving the development and implementation of clinical informatics are described and discussed. The student is then introduced to important structural and technical concepts of health care data. Students get hands-on experience on how to analyze a healthcare problem and model its data effectively using appropriate work flow and data modeling techniques. The third major component of this course covers clinical decision support as a technology-mediated process by which patient information and characteristics are captured, matched to an algorithm, and used to guide patient care. Students learn the basic principles and advanced concepts of clinical decision support, benefits as well as the drawbacks of these systems, and how these are used support the practice of evidence based medicine. Important design principles such as signal-to-noise ratios, alert fatigue, and usability are also covered.

Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

Ethics, Privacy, Legal and Regulatory Issues

  1. Explain the roles of the main accreditation and regulatory bodies, and professional associations in healthcare in the United States.
  2. Describe the rulemaking process employed in the US for promulgating rules that affect CI.
  3. Describe the main provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with respect to CI.
  4. Describe key components of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and current issues of patient privacy and security in the United States.
  5. Describe the provisions of the ARRA HITECH Act relative to meaningful use and regional extension centers.
  6. Apply the HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules to a variety of clinical situations and scenarios.
  7. Describe meaningful use (MU) under the HITECH Act and identify the different stages of MU.
  8. List and explain some of the main criticisms of MU

 History and Current State of Informatics

  1. Define the terminology describing informatics and related fields.
  2. Identify and define the major domains of Biomedical Informatics (BI).
  3. Describe major milestones in informatics.
  4. Describe the major milestones in the evolution of the medical record (e.g. SOAP, EHR, PHR).
  5. Identify major figures and organizations in informatics
  6. Identify and outline international codes of practice and ethical codes relevant to Clinical Informatics (CI).

The Health System

  1. Explain the basic characteristics and organization of the US healthcare delivery system.
  2. Describe the roles of and customers served by various types of healthcare organizations.
  3. Describe the administrative and functional organization of entities that deliver healthcare in the United States in both inpatient and outpatient settings.
  4. Explain how healthcare organizations interact with each other and with patients to provide appropriate levels of care.
  5. Describe the services provided to unique populations, including underserved populations.
  6. Define public health and how it has improved healthcare.
  7. Identify significant problems in the US health care system and their contributing factors.
  8. Define “complex adaptive system” and why this model can be applied to US the health care system.
  9. Describe the “Six Aims for Improvement” and the associated structural and process changes needed to accomplish these aims as recommended by the IOM in 2001.
  10. Describe how US health care compares to health care in other developed countries in terms of cost, efficiency and health care outcomes
  11. Describe the main features of a learning health care system.

Knowledge Acquisition and Use for Clinical Support

  1. Define clinical data.
  2. Identify the five elements of a clinical datum.
  3. Identify the major types of clinical data.
  4. Identify the main sources of clinical data.
  5. Describe the main uses of clinical data.
  6. Describe current and historical methods of collecting and storing clinical data.
  7. Identify strengths and weaknesses of widely used methods of collecting, storing and sharing clinical data.
  8. Describe the “data-to-knowledge” continuum.

Clinical Data and Clinical Decision Making

  1. Describe the Hypothetico-Deductive approach for clinical decision making.
  2. Describe everyday techniques of decision-making and potential biases.
  3. Understand the relevance of "choice under uncertainty" to medical decisions.
  4. Demonstrate how decision analysis can be used to model complex decisions.
  5. Understand how definitions of utility and patient preference impact the value of an outcome.
  6. Understand how cost effectiveness analysis can be used to make decisions about allocation of constrained healthcare resources.
  7. Define cognitive heuristics and describe its relevance to medical decision making.
  8. Define sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV using the syntax "the probability of X given Y".
  9. Describe the applicability and limitations of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV to clinical decision-making, disease screening, and diagnostic testing.
  10. Identify different types of bias that can occur in diagnostic testing and test interpretation.
  11. Be able to apply Bayes theorem to estimate the probability of the presence of a disease.
  12. Use Markov models to determine treatment threshold probabilities
  13. Compare and contrast the various approaches to representing knowledge in clinical decision support systems from the past and present.
  14. Describe known problems of safety with health IT systems and how they can be minimized.
  15. Understand the current legal and regulatory framework for clinical decision support.

Applied Clinical Decision Support

  1. Describe the difference between interruptive/modal and non-interruptive /modeless alerts with possible. applications to Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems
  2. Classify CDS interventions by area of clinical care (prevention, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, care planning).
  3. Classify CDS interventions by intervention intent (reminder; information; recommendation; corrective action; alerting).
  4. Classify CDS interventions by intended audience.
  5. Describe the "five rights" of an effective CDS intervention.
  6. Understand common limitations of evaluations of CDS interventions and ways to overcome these limitations.
  7. Explain how interoperability, clinical terminology, and guideline representation standards could be used to facilitate broader adoption of CDS tools.
  8. Describe common strategies for maintaining and updating decision support tools, and the risks of not having these strategies in place.

 

 

BINF 7220 Applied Clinical Informatics II: Computer Science Fundamentals and Data Analytics; Challenges in Informatics Quality and Safety
Credits:
8
Directors:
Brown, Walsh
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

In this course students learn database concepts, design, development, implementation, and administration that is specifically targeted towards healthcare environments. Healthcare data integrity, data quality, and data security are emphasized. Management of data structure and content for compliance with standards, regulations (including HIPAA and HITECH), and accrediting agencies are detailed. Students examine strategies and technologies for data storage, controlling access, protecting confidentiality, archiving and backing up, and restoring massive amounts of healthcare data. This course provides students the opportunity to analyze the various types of healthcare data and explore the challenges related to modeling, collecting, using and analyzing each main type of healthcare data. This course explores different strategies for representing data, information and knowledge, including required and emerging standards for coding, nomenclature, and their associated taxonomies and ontologies. It also examines how these standards are used to create tools for mining, analyzing, interpreting and sharing information for a variety of clinical and administrative purposes throughout the healthcare system.

Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

Computer Programming and Software Development

  1. Give examples of common data structures; use the example of date representations to illustrate how choice of data structure influences its use.
  2. Using pseudo-code, be able to define a clinical rule using each of the following control structures: “IF-THEN-ELSE","CASE", "FOR”, “LOOP", and "WHILE”.
  3. Describe the main different software development methodologies and how they differ in their approaches to requirement gathering, scope definition, and risk mitigation.
  4. Describe at a high level how software systems may be integrated through interfaces, messaging standards, and web services.
  5. Compare "black-box" and "white-box" software testing.
  6. Define software verification and software validation.
  7. Give clinical examples of software testing strategies such as beta testing, testing, and regression testing following system enhancement.

Information Retrieval and Analysis

  1. Identify the major search systems used by clinicians and be able to use advanced features within them to retrieve the most relevant content.
  2. Identify the major search systems used by patients and be able to provide resources for their most effective use.
  3. Help clinicians and patients find the highest quality information possible for application in health and clinical decisions.

Systems, Databases and Networks

  1. Distinguish between hierarchical, relational, and object-oriented databases; list one advantage and disadvantage of each.
  2. Use Unified Modeling Language (UML) Entity Relationship (ER) diagrams to describe the logical schema of a database.
  3. Describe how a suite of UML diagrams are used to model a process and assist in software development and maintenance.
  4. Describe how update, insert, and deletion anomalies in databases are prevented through database normalization.
  5. Describe how de-normalization of a database can be used to optimize certain queries, for example, in a clinical datamart.
  6. Describe some of the common network topologies, such as star, tree, and bus networks.
  7. Provide the names and uses of common telecommunications standards.

Challenges and Strategies

  1. Describe at a high level the flow of data in clinical systems from collection to storage to analysis.
  2. Describe the uses and challenges for identification and anonymization of patient data.
  3. Describe the general phases of the user-centered design process.
  4. Describe key principles of good user interface design.
  5. Describe important usability heuristics and usability evaluation methods.

Health Information Systems and Applications

  1. Describe the architecture, technical and computing infrastructure underlying important health information systems (HIS).
  2. Describe the key role the EHRs play in supporting a learning health system.
  3. Describe the breadth of HIS functionality and features and that have been challenging for physicians.
  4. Identify telemedicine application areas and types.

Healthcare Data Re-Use

  1. Describe the use and limitations of clinical data for patient care and other uses.
  2. Define and describe the 3 “V’s” of biomedical big data.
  3. Describe the challenges in data retrieval when dealing with structured and unstructured healthcare data.
  4. Describe Structured Query Language (SQL) and perform simple database queries using SQL.
  5. Explain the differences between supervised and unsupervised learning.
  6. Describe at a high level some approaches used for unsupervised learning and supervised learning.
  7. Describe Application Programmer Interfaces (APIs) and how APIs can be used for data integration.

Clinical Workflow Analysis and Re-Design

  1. Identify the components of a workflow analysis (WA) effort, and key questions that should be considered in the design of a workflow study.
  2. Describe the difference between quantitative and qualitative data collection methods in WA.
  3. Identify different methods of mapping and recording workflow data in the healthcare setting, and recognize what type of data each method is best suited to record.
  4. Identify the practical considerations and limitations of conducting observational fieldwork.
  5. Identify common types of questions that may be answered via analysis of workflow data.
  6. Compare the impact that the design of a system, versus the people who work in a system, has on system performance (e.g., patient safety).
  7. Describe the contributions of timeliness and high reliability to the success of Workflow Re-engineering/ Process Redesign in the Healthcare Setting.
  8. Describe some of the various models of Workflow Re-engineering, and identify the benefits of applying a consistent model within and across a particular healthcare system.
  9. Identify key components of a Workflow Re-engineering effort.

Healthcare Quality Improvement

  1. Define healthcare quality from the standpoint of a patient, a healthcare provider, a society/community, and a payer; explain how these definitions are sometimes challenging to reconcile.
  2. Distinguish between healthcare quality indicators that measure structure, process, and outcomes.
  3. Identify the major well-established quality improvement (QI) frameworks in use in healthcare such as: Toyota Lean, Six Sigma, Associates for Process Improvement (API), and Total Quality Management (TQM); describe high-level concepts associated with each.
  4. Describe how lshikawa/fishbone diagrams and Pareto charts can be used to identify targets for Ql efforts in healthcare.
  5. Describe the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle.
  6. Explain the applicability of control charts to evaluation of healthcare Ql efforts.
  7. Compare control charts and evaluation methods based on hypothesis testing, such as randomized trials.

Security

  1. Describe at a high level key elements of the HIPAA Security Rule.
  2. Define key terms in the Security Rule such as: “protected health information (PHI)”, “covered entity”, “business associate”, “technical” vs “administrative” standards, “required” vs “addressable” standards, etc.
  3. Identify required policy, and technical measures to protect the security of PHI.
  4. Describe in detail 3 of each of these measures (e.g., firewalls, VPNs, encryption, user training, sanction policies, etc.) and how they are used to protect PH
BINF 7230 Applied Clinical Informatics III: Big Data and Advanced Analytics, Interoperability; Current Research in Clinical Informatics: Other Biomedical Informatic Domains
Credits:
7
Directors:
Brown, Walsh
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This course has four modules and provides hands on training in the use of advanced data analytic tools to generate actionable information and knowledge for use in clinical settings. The course covers theories and methodologies for analyzing, measuring, and predicting health outcomes as well as reducing errors and inefficiencies, and controlling costs in health care. Students read and critique current research articles in publications including Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, Applied Clinical Informatics, and Journal of Biomedical Informatics. The course also provides students with an overview of the main topics of study in the other primary biomedical informatics including: bioinformatics, translational informatics, imaging informatics, public health informatics, and consumer informatics.

Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

Computer Programming and Methods of Software Development

  1. Describe some of the new “disruptive” technologies that are being introduced into HIT (Blockchain, SMART, FHIR).
  2. Describe and demonstrate simple applications of Application Programmer Interfaces (APIs) for the integration of clinical data.
  3. Use analytics technologies to create reports and “apps” that leverage data from EHRs and other data sources.

Human-Computer Interaction

  1. Give examples of clinical errors that can be prevented through the application of human factors engineering principles.
  2. Compare and contrast usability inspection and usability testing.
  3. Describe the three components of discount usability engineering: scenario/mockups, simplified think-aloud exercise, and heuristic evaluation.
  4. Enumerate and describe commonly accepted standards of good interface design.

Clinical Data Standards

  1. Describe the importance and limitations of standards in clinical information systems.
  2. Discuss the major types of standards and their roles in clinical information systems.
  3. Define identifier standards and the major standards used for them.
  4. Define transaction standards and the major standards used for them.
  5. Define messaging standards and the major standards used for them.       
  6. Describe the major terminology standards in biomedicine, their uses and their limitations.

Domains of Biomedical Informatics

  1. List and explain the key domains of biomedical informatics.
  2. Compare and contrast health informatics, clinical informatics, medical informatics, and public health informatics.
  3. Define and describe imaging informatics and clinical research informatics.
  4. Compare and contrast bioinformatics and translational bioinformatics.

Current Informatics Research

  1. Describe the key components of an informatics research paper.
  2. Define the key steps for providing a formal evaluation, assessment, and critique of an informatics research paper.
  3. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of open access vs. closed access publishing.
  4. Define and describe impact factor and other measures of journal importance.
BINF 7240 Applied Clinical Informatics IV: Computer Information System Implementation and Planning; Capstone project
Credits:
8
Directors:
Brown, Walsh
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This course has three modules and focuses on the design, analysis, selection, and management of health information systems through hands-on experience and conceptual modeling of healthcare applications (eg, electronic health records, clinical decision support systems, ancillary systems, analytic systems, and practice management systems). Students gain an understanding of how health information technologies are used to support health information processing, services delivery, and administration. This course covers system building blocks, systems integration, work flow redesign, and business process integration for health data exchange and resource sharing among health care stakeholders. Fundamental subjects such as system analysis concepts, life cycle modeling, interface design, system evaluation, and management of health care applications within and across health care organizations are covered. The course also covers important concepts in strategic planning, project leadership, team building, and change management. The course culminates with a capstone project that offers students the opportunity to gain real-world experience by working on informatics projects in clinical settings. Students may work independently or as part of a team on various applied projects to facilitate selection, implementation, and optimal use of health information technologies in a health care organization. Students participate in the design of their individual projects and are required to develop project plans that leverage the academic training they have received in the degree program.

Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

Implementation and Operation of Clinical Information Systems

  1. Define several institutional governance models for clinical information systems.
  2. List formal and informal methods to define and specify system requirements and solicit vendor proposals.
  3. Describe system conversion strategies and their relative merits.
  4. Describe the key elements of a system implementation plan.
  5. Describe key elements of a clinical systems operation and maintenance plan.
  6. Identify the critical components of a good disaster recovery plan.
  7. Identify at a high level the main, physical, technical and administrative ways to mitigate risk.
  8. Enumerate the important features of a good user support system.

Evaluation of Clinical Information Systems

  1. Describe the measurement of outcomes and quality from use of clinical information systems.
  2. Design an evaluation study of a clinical information system.

Leadership Models, Processes and Practices

  1. Identify dimensions of effective leadership and their relationship to successful management of technological change in the healthcare setting.
  2. Identify elements of good organizational governance that support effective technological change in healthcare settings.
  3. Enumerate and describe effective techniques in negotiation, conflict management, decision making for technological change in healthcare organizations.

Building Effective Healthcare IT Teams

  1. Describe the different types of human expertise required for a team to be successful with a clinical information systems implementation plan.
  2. List human resource factors that should be considered ahead of time when planning to recruit internally or externally for positions on a healthcare IT team.
  3. List factors that are critical to a team's ability to work together effectively, and to be successful in turning out product.
  4. Identify the characteristics of team goals that are likely to promote team effectiveness.
  5. Identify and describe three processes commonly employed in group management.
  6. Describe elements for successful management of team meetings, and techniques for management of group deliberations.

Communication Strategies

  1. Distinguish between rich and lean types of communication.
  2. Identify the differences among three change concepts: Roger's Diffusion of Innovations concept, Lewin's Change Theory, and Bridge's Transition Theory, and discuss how each may apply to one-on-one or group communication during the execution of a clinical implementation.
  3. Identify 2 “new" modes or channels of communication that have been promoted by the use of electronic health records in the healthcare setting.
  4. Give an example of when written communication would be most effective in a clinical information systems implementation. State how that written communication may need to differ with respect to Informing clinical staff, versus informing patients, versus informing administrators, etc.
  5. State the effect of too much information on human performance and on communication effectiveness.
  6. Describe the pivotal role of a comprehensive communication plan in any information management project plan.

Project Management

  1. State the basic principles of project management
  2. Define the "triple constraint" in project management planning.
  3. Identify five major process groups in the project management lifecycle.
  4. Identify four major components of an effective project plan.
  5. Describe strategies in project planning that help to avoid scope creep.
  6. List tools useful in project management.

Strategic Planning for Clinical Information Systems

  1. Explain the critical importance of aligning strategic and financial planning for clinical information systems, including mission statement and objectives, with the healthcare organization's overall strategic plan.
  2. Outline the basic tenets of three models of strategic planning for health IT (pull model, push model, component alignment model), and how they may be used to guide strategy formulation.
  3. Explain the benefit of performing a rigorous internal and external environmental scan of IT and CIS resources prior to formulating a long range strategic plan.

Financial Planning for Clinical Information Systems

  1. Identify general principles of capital and operating budgeting as they pertain to clinical information systems.
  2. Describe general principles of managerial accounting.
  3. Explain key financial concepts used in financial planning for clinical information systems.

Change Management

  1. Explain why change management is an ongoing organizational process, rather than a means to a single event.
  2. Describe the relevance of "people" and "process" factors with respect to organizational readiness and willingness to participate in change.
  3. Outline how the different change theories can help us to understand specific organizational behavior, and guide development of a successful change management strategy
  4. Identify key components of a change management strategy, and discuss the features of each component.
  5. Describe how a change management strategy can be tailored to promote adoption and effective use of clinical information systems in a particular setting.

Capstone Project

  1. Design and propose a capstone project focused on applied clinical informatics in collaboration with internal and external mentors.
  2. Formulate and execute project plan that leverages concepts and skills acquired during the degree program.
  3. Write up and present key findings and takeaways in final presentation.
BINF 7510 Selected Topics in Biomedical Informatics - Section 1 Introduction to Scholarly Journal Publishing
Credits:
0.5
Directors:
Lorbeer
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This exploratory topic is designed for students who are interested in the mechanics of scholarly publishing, editorship and authorship as part of their academic career. Publishing now encompasses a broader, more interdisciplinary skill set that includes digital publishing technologies, data repositories, open peer review, and research funding mandates on depositing final post-prints. Students will gain knowledge in the publishing process including types of published works, publisher business models, the peer review process, authors’ rights in regards to copyright, and research integrity.

Total time expectation will be 20-30 hours per week with time allowed for students to prepare before meeting by completing assigned readings or individual learning activities.

Objectives:
  • To become familiar with the scholarly publishing process
  • To become familiar with the roles and responsibilities of the publisher, editor and author
  • To recognize authority resources for critically evaluating and measuring research influence and impact of journal titles in a discipline
  • To understand the role of article level metrics and its measured activity around academic research
  • To become familiar with the peer-review process, and author-rights and how it relates to copyright
  • To identify research bias, funder transparency, and ethical behavior in disseminating scientific discovery in scholarly communication
BINF 7510 Selected Topics in Biomedical Informatics - Section 2 Developing Your Publication Plan
Credits:
0.5
Directors:
Lorbeer
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This topic will provide students the opportunity to explore and formulate a proposal for planning, conducting, and publishing their scholarly research project. Students are guided through the scholarly writing and publishing process to successfully find the appropriate outlet to disseminate their work.

Total time expectation will be 20-30 hours per week with time allowed for students to prepare before meeting by completing assigned readings and their individual publication plan.

Objectives:
  • To identify the essential steps of planning and writing a scholarly paper.
  • To develop a personal publication plan
  • To understand the pros and cons of collaborative authorship and engaging in ethical behavior by citing sources and avoiding plagiarism
  • To learn how to identify and approach a writing mentor
  • To identify publication opportunities
  • To describe the writing process, including management of deadlines, resources that can assist in the literature search, following author guidelines, and preparing manuscripts for publication
  • To learn strategies for getting published and handling rejection
BINF 7510 Selected Topics in Biomedical Informatics - Section 3 Doctor and Patient: Gathering the Whole Story
Credits:
0.5
Directors:
Costello, Bauler
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

The Doctor and Patient: Gathering the whole story elective is a one-week, skills oriented course. The course is designed to help students enhance the humanization of medicine in their practice by utilizing study of the arts. Narratives are a constant in medicine, used to assess patient problems, educate other physicians, critically analyze situations, and as a means of personal expression. The generalization of patients as bodies can undermine our interpretation of any critical information a patients’ narrative may hold. In addition, acceptance into residency programs is dependent upon a compelling written personal statement. In this elective, students will utilize active learning activities to improve their communication, observation, empathy, critical thinking, and resiliency skills - the goal is to enhance student's practice of medicine and to help them write an effective and impactful personal statement. Activities include identifying fine details in artwork to promote observation skills - this mimics attention-to-detail that is requisite for proper physical examinations. Students will learn about processes of constructing captivating narratives, various forms of writing, and the use of metaphors in medicine. Reflective writing exercises will be utilized to develop critical thinking, empathy, and demonstrate tools useful for self- resiliency. The course will also introduce basic computational techniques to help identify mental health conditions that the patient may not explicitly present. Students will produce several writing samples which will undergo sentiment analysis to identify emotionality present in their language use. The goal is to help students grasp how language usage can be assessed to improve their communication skills thereby not only enhancing their clinical practice but also helping them succeed in future endeavors. The elective is design to be interactive and engaging, with active participation from all students.

Students will need to prepare before class by completing assigned readings and individual activities (or tasks) in order to participate in class. The first day of the elective will discuss the mechanics of the course, expectations, and general overview of the topic. Subsequent days will include critical observation of a student-selected piece of art in the community followed by a written description; careful reading and analysis of narrative works focused on clinical encounters; poetry or prose workshop; and computational narrative analysis of written samples. Students will complete baseline and summative assessments on empathy and observation, to determine if these skills improved during the course. Students will finish the elective with several written pieces designed to improve their written communication skills.

Offering: Minimum of 2 students required

Objectives:
  • Demonstrate an enhanced ability to write robust personal statements 

  • Apply techniques learned by art-viewing to patient image analysis and clinical observation 

  • Express emotions about particularly difficult clinical/ patient interactions
  • Analyze word-emotion usage patterns in language via computational narrative analysis 

  • Critically assess, interpret, and understand experiences in health care via writing
  • Demonstrate increased empathy and communication by utilizing study of the arts Apply the study of the arts to clinical training
BINF 9210 Biomedical Informatics Research
Credits:
4,5,6,7,8
Directors:
Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

Objectives:

Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

BINF 9220 Selected Topics in Biomedical Informatics
Credits:
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
Directors:
Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

Objectives:

Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

BIOM 6110 Basics of Molecular Foundations
Credits:
5
Directors:
Olken, Garrow
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This is a seven-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of the role of cells in the body and the regulation of energy metabolism. Cellular biochemistry and basic anatomical structure are introduced, emphasizing the role of cells as the basic building blocks in a hierarchal system that increases in complexity as cells form tissues, organs, organ systems, and the whole organism. The influence that nutrition and physiological state have on macronutrient metabolism is covered with special emphasis on the integration of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in different organ systems. The consequences of defective glucose metabolism serve as the central clinical theme throughout the course.

Objectives:
  • Explain the structural organization of the body from the cellular to the organ level differentiating the four cell types found in the body.
  • Define protein structure and the role of enzymes as catalysts, describe enzyme kinetics, and differentiate between competitive and non-competitive inhibitors.
  • Describe the structure and function of cellular organelles including cell membranes, illustrate vesicular trafficking, and differentiate classes of drug receptors.
  • Explain the principles of receptor pharmacology including agonist, antagonist, receptor reserve, drug selectivity, potency, and efficacy.
  • Describe how carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are utilized as fuels.
  • Describe the overall design and purpose of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation and how these pathways are coordinately regulated.
  • Describe the overall design and purpose of gluconeogenesis and how it is regulated.
  • Describe the metabolism of fructose and galactose and identify diseases that arise from defects in their metabolism.
  • Describe the overall design and purpose of glycogen storage and degradation, comparing and contrasting the role of glycogen metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle.
  • Describe the role of the pentose phosphate pathway in the production of NADPH and pentose phosphate.
  • Describe the structure and synthesis of fatty acids, triacylglycerides, and membrane lipids.
  • Describe the process of fatty acid oxidation and the generation of energy from fatty acid oxidation.
  • Define the role of fatty acids and ketone bodies in fuel homeostasis.
  • Describe how changes in macronutrient intake influence pancreatic hormone secretion and energy metabolism in liver, skeletal muscle, adipose, kidney and brain.
  • Discuss the mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in the body.
  • Explain how dietary lipids are carried in the blood and the underlying genetic basis and clinical presentation of severe elevations in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
  • Compare and contrast the function and regulation of mitosis versus meiosis.
  • Explain cellular signal transduction pathways using receptors, second messengers, kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors, including regulation of plasma glucose levels.
  • Describe the biological and physiological nature of extracellular and secondary messenger systems.
  • Describe the basic structure, function and cellular distribution of cell adhesion proteins.
  • Compare and contrast the molecular and histological differences between cellular necrosis and apoptosis.
  • List the vitamins and minerals and know the clinical signs of deficiency and toxicity associated with each.
  • Define embryonic stem cells and the different developmental capacities (potencies) associated with these cell types.
  • Describe the key events in early and late embryological development, the genetic processes that regulate development.
  • List the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, pre-diabetes, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, obesity and metabolic syndrome and understand surgical and pharmacologic treatments for these diagnoses.
BIOM 6120 Basics of Genetic and Metabolic Disorders
Credits:
5
Directors:
Larson, Garrow, Prahlow
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This is a six-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of medical biochemistry relevant to the metabolism of macromolecular precursors and the genetic basis of disease. Medically important metabolism of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides are covered in the context of disease. The course also provides insight into ethanol metabolism and tissue damage associated with reactive oxygen species. Clinical disorders that have a genetic component are covered, and a molecular framework is built for understanding disease etiology, modern diagnosis, and therapeutic intervention. An overview of the basic genetics of medically important infectious agents, gene regulation, and population genetics provides a background on the genetic underpinnings of human disease.

Objectives:
  • Describe how the urea cycle maintains a proper nitrogen balance, and allows for excretion of excess ammonium in the form of urea.
  • Explain the characteristics and pathophysiology of lysosomal storage diseases and hypercholesterolemia. 
  • List essential and nonessential amino acids, and describe conditions where nonessential amino acids become conditionally essential.
  • Describe how amino acids are synthesized and degraded.
  • Describe the roles of folic acid and S-adenosylmethionine in the transfer of one-carbon units between molecules.
  • Differentiate between the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and forms of cellular toxicity associated with free-radical injury.
  • Differentiate between disease states associated with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism.
  • Describe the metabolism of ethanol and the associated toxic effects of ethanol metabolism.
  • Describe the de novo and salvage pathways for purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, and associated clinical disorders.
  • Describe protein-energy nutrition spectrum disorders.
  • Describe human gene structure and the content of the human genome.
  • Explain basic human and bacterial chromosome structure, eukaryotic chromatin, and chromosomal abnormalities associated with disease.
  • Describe the fundamental processes of DNA replication, transcription and translation.
  • Apply knowledge of cytogenetics and molecular genetics to describe the principles, uses, and limitations of genetic testing technologies.
  • Explain how various DNA mutation and exchange processes influence single-gene and chromosomal level alterations that cause disease.
  • Explain the role of regulatory RNAs in gene expression and therapeutic intervention.
  • Describe the major mechanisms of DNA repair and the disease-related consequences of genome instability.
  • Describe mechanisms of genetic/genomic variation that explain variation in normal phenotypic expression, disease phenotypes, and treatment plans.
  • Describe Mendelian inheritance and the use of pedigrees to explain inheritance patterns, and differentiate single-gene from multifactorial disease.
  • Explain how factors such as reduced penetrance and variable expressivity affect the phenotypic expression of a disease and the observed pattern of inheritance.
  • Describe the molecular and genetic contributors to malignant transformation and the tissue-specific changes associated with neoplasia.
  • Explain dynamic mutations, repeat expansions, and the concept of anticipation.
  • Explain the relationship between gene interactions and traits, articulating how a single genotype can influence multiple phenotypes and development via modifier genes and epistasis.
  • Identify the components of personalized medicine and describe how they might impact patient health with regard to pharmacogenomics.
  • Describe normal and abnormal mammalian sexual development and explain the factors contributing congenital defects and dysmorphology.
  • Explain the role of epigenetics in gene regulation and development, connecting chromatin states with imprinting diseases and X-inactivation.
  • Describe the mitochondrial genome and mitochondrial diseases.
  • Explain the basic biology of medically relevant microbes and describe the genetic processes that contribute to antimicrobial resistance.
  • Define the general concepts of antiviral drug therapy.
  • Apply the principles of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to genetic variation in populations and for calculating carrier frequency.
  • Describe the basic molecular technologies in biomedicine, including exome and whole genome sequencing.
  • Explain the various strategies for treating genetic diseases using gene targeting or silencing methodologies.
BIOM 6120 Cellular Basics of Health and Disease
Credits:
4
Directors:
Bauler, Sheakley, D. Patel
Description:

Cellular Basics of Health and Disease is a four-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of the role of cells within the body. Cellular biochemistry, anatomical structure, and physiological function are introduced and then expanded, emphasizing the role of cells as the basic building blocks in a hierarchal system that increases in complexity as cells form tissues, organs, organ systems, and the whole organism. Cellular hormonal and neuronal control mechanisms are described at the biochemical, histological, and physiological levels. The principle of homeostasis is defined at the level of cell, tissues, organs, and at whole body level, with signals arising from the body’s four tissue types used as examples of the importance of this process in the control of body function. The autonomic nervous system is described in detail and then employed as the starting point for teaching of the foundations of human pharmacology. Pharmacological principles outlined include pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics (personalized medicine), and toxicity. The use of drugs for the treatment of disease is introduced with an overview of how clinical laboratory methodology can be employed to provide scientific data for the diagnosis, evaluation, and monitoring of microbial disease and its pharmacological treatment. The course introduces the basic biology of medically relevant microbes, the basic principles of infectious disease, the underlying mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, the immunologic basis of disease etiology and pathology, and vaccination and immunotherapy.

Objectives:
  • Explain the structural organization of the body into a functional unit from the cellular level to level of the whole body differentiating the four cell types found in the body.
  • Define the concept of homeostasis at the cellular, tissue, organ and organism levels
  • Explain how the principles of negative and positive feedback, hierarchy, redundancy and, adaptability are integral to homeostatic control.
  • List the common parameters of the extracellular fluid compartment that must be homeostatically regulated ([nutrients]; [O2]/[CO2]; [waste products]; [H+] = pH; [H2O]/[Electrolytes]; volume and pressure; temperature), including normal blood chemistry values, plasma water and salt content regulation, and basis of cellular volume control.
  • Define how ions and molecules are transported across the cellular plasma membrane, epithelial organs, and capillaries, as well as the relevance of these processes to disease, including the ionic basis of cell membrane potential.
  • Define the biological and physiological nature of extracellular messengers, differentiating between hormone and neurotransmitter function.
  • Explain cellular signal transduction pathways using receptors, second messengers, kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors, including regulation of plasma glucose levels.
  • Compare and contrast the structure and function of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system including sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, cholinergic and adrenergic receptors, synaptic transmission, consequences of receptor dysfunction, and drugs that used to manage receptor dysfunction.
  • Describe the pharmacodynamics of drugs in terms of concentration, dose, and response
  • Explain the principles of receptor pharmacology including agonist, antagonist, receptor reserve, drug selectivity, potency, and efficacy.
  • Analyze pharmacological effects in terms of ligand or drug-receptor interactions and pharmacological effects in terms of drug absorption and distribution, therapeutic index, and toxicity.
  • Use pharmacokinetic principles and data to calculate drug loading and maintenance doses, and effects of drug metabolism, excretion, and elimination effects the plasma concentration of drugs.
  • Describe the process in which new drugs are developed, tested, and approved for medical use in the United States.
  • Identify the components of personalized medicine and describe how they might impact patient health with regard to pharmacogenomics.
  • Describe the basic biology of medically relevant microbes.
  • Describe the basic mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, the epidemiology relating to the management, control, and prevention of disease.
BIOM 6130 Basics of Systems Regulation
Credits:
3
Directors:
Sheakley, Gregoire-Bottex, Bauler
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This is a three-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of molecular and physiologic processes that regulate the activity of multiple organ systems. Cellular transport of ions and molecules is introduced, emphasizing genetic and microbial diseases that interfere with the normal function of transporters. The principle of homeostasis is defined at the level of cells, tissues, organs, and the whole body, with examples to demonstrate the importance of homeostasis in the control of body function. The autonomic nervous system is described in detail and then employed as the starting point for teaching of the foundations of human pharmacology. Pharmacological principles outlined include pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity. The course introduces the immune system, and then expands on the systemic role of inflammation in disease.

Objectives:
  • Explain how ions and molecules are transported across the cellular plasma membrane, epithelial organs, and capillaries, as well as the relevance of these processes to disease.
  • Compare and contrast anatomical imaging techniques.
  • Explain the concept of homeostasis at the cellular, tissue, organ and organism levels, including how the principles of negative and positive feedback, hierarchy, redundancy, and adaptability are integral to homeostatic control.
  • List the common parameters influencing the extracellular fluid compartment that are homeostatically regulated, and describe plasma water and salt content regulation as the basis of cellular volume control.
  • Compare and contrast the structure and function of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system, including cholinergic and adrenergic receptors, consequences of receptor dysfunction, and drugs used to manage receptor dysfunction.
  • Describe the pathophysiology of organophosphate poisoning and pheochromocytoma as related to autonomic nervous system function.
  • Describe the pharmacodynamics of drugs in terms of concentration, dose, and response.
  • Analyze pharmacological effects in terms of ligand or drug-receptor interactions and pharmacological effects in terms of drug absorption and distribution, therapeutic index, and toxicity.
  • Apply pharmacokinetic principles and data to calculate drug loading and maintenance doses, and effects of drug metabolism, excretion, and elimination effects the plasma concentration of drugs.
  • Describe the functions of the major components of the immune system.
  • Describe the immunology and pathology of inflammation, and discuss the role of NSAIDs in the treatment of inflammation.
BIOM 6130 Genetic Basics of Health and Disease
Credits:
4
Directors:
Vanden Heuvel, Ten Eyck, Leonov
Description:

Genetics Basics of Health and Disease is a five-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of human medical genetic concepts and clinical disorders that have a genetic component.  The course also provides an overview of the basic genetics of medically important infectious agents that contribute to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases.

Objectives:
  • Explain how genetic mechanisms play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis and treatment of diseases and in the maintenance of health.
  • Describe mechanisms of gene regulation; illustrate the role of templates in these processes; recognize diseases that are associated with defective gene regulation.
  • Describe the processes of DNA replication.
  • Describe the function and regulation of mitosis, the process by which genetic material is segregated to produce two daughter cells.
  • Explain the importance of sexual reproduction for generating genetic diversity among populations.
  • Distinguish pedigree characteristics for different modes of inheritance.
  • Apply knowledge of genetic/genomic variation to explain variation in normal phenotypic expression, disease phenotypes, and treatment options.
  • Define embryonic stem cells and the different developmental capacities (potencies) associated with these cell types.
  • Describe Mendelian inheritance and recognize pedigree patterns.
  • Understand the normal genetic processes that regulate development and how disruption of these processes can cause developmental problems and disease.
  • Define the concept of epigenetics, explain the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulation of gene expression, development and disease, and describe how environmental exposures can influence epigenetic modifications.
  • Describe chromosomal abnormalities and which are compatible with life.
  • Describe normal and abnormal mammalian sexual development and explain the factors that control it.
  • Describe the types of errors in morphology that lead to congenital birth defects.
  • Define the mechanism and diseases resulting from unstable triplet expansion errors.
  • Understand the relationship between gene interactions and the measurable traits of an individual.
  • Apply knowledge of cytogenetics and molecular genetics to describe the principles, uses and limitations of genetic testing technologies.
  • Explain how factors such as reduced penetrance and variable expressivity affect the phenotypic expression of a disease and the observed pattern of inheritance.
  • Compare the inheritance patterns of multifactorial inheritance disorders with single-gene disorders.
  • Describe the genetic mechanisms that result in uniparental disomy and the clinical consequences.
  • Describe the mitochondrial genome and contrast with the nuclear genome.
  • Describe the nucleic acid composition, structure, replication and reproduction of microbes.
  • List the types and causes of DNA mutation, the mechanisms of DNA repair and the functional consequences of mutation.
  • Define the general concepts of antiviral drug therapy.
  • Describe the basic concepts of emerging technologies including expression based techniques, exome and whole genome sequencing.
  • Explain the pathogenesis of prions.
  • Compare personalized vs non-personalized forms of medical therapy.
  • Describe how biomarkers can be used as indicators of different disease states and could be applied to various clinical situations.
BIOM 6140 Metabolic Basics of Health and Disease
Credits:
3
Directors:
Garrow, Wilke
Description:

Metabolic Basics of Health and Disease is a three-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of medical biochemistry related to the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides with special emphasis on defects in these metabolic pathways and their clinical relevance. Special emphasis is placed on the integration of metabolic pathways and the regulation of metabolism in different organ systems under different nutritional stress. The course also provides insight into ethanol metabolism as well as the formation of reactive oxygen species and the potential tissue damage associated with oxygen radical formation.

Objectives:
  • Describe the overall design and purpose of gluconeogenesis, its reactants and products, cellular and tissue localization, and how it is regulated.
  • Describe the metabolism of fructose and galactose and identify diseases that arise from defects in their metabolism.
  • Describe the role of the pentose phosphate pathway in the production of NADPH and pentose phosphate.
  • Describe how the urea cycle maintains a proper nitrogen balance, and allows for excretion of excess ammonium in the form of urea.
  • Define the roles of folic acid and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the transfer of one-carbon units between molecules.
  • Define essential and nonessential amino acids, list which nonessential amino acids can upon certain conditions become conditional essential.
  • Identify intermediates from glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway that can serve as precursors for the synthesis of nonessential amino acids, and the anabolic reactions of non-essential amino acids.
  • Define ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids and the pathways of amino acid degradation.
  • Differentiate the following disease states associated with inborn errors ofamino acid metabolism: cystinuria, histidinemia, phelyketonuria, methylmalonyl CoA mutase deficiency, homocystinuria, alcaptonuria, maple syrup urine disease, cystathioninuria, and tyrosinemia.
  • Describe the structure and synthesis of fatty acids, triacylglycerides, and membrane lipids.
  • Describe the process of fatty acid oxidation and the generation of energy from fatty acid oxidation.
  • Define the role of fatty acids and ketone bodies in fuel homeostasis.
  • Describe the de novo and salvage pathways for purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis.
  • List the gene disorders and diseases associated with purine and pyrimidine metabolism, the metabolite that accumulates, and the clinical symptoms of the disease.
  • Describe the metabolism of ethanol and the associated toxic effects of ethanol metabolism.
  • Differentiate between the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen-oxygen species (RNOS) and forms of cellular toxicity associated with free-radicle injury.
BIOM 6150 Basics of Immunology and Infectious Diseases
Credits:
4
Directors:
Bauler
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This is a five-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of the principles of immunology and infectious diseases, and the application of this knowledge to immunologic, infectious, and rheumatologic (collagen vascular) diseases. The course integrates immunology through microbiology and includes relevant aspects of anatomy, histology, pharmacology, and pathology. Specifically, students: (1) learn about the soluble mediators, cells, and organs of the immune system and how these elements work together to prevent and respond to infection; (2) examine how the immune system causes and contributes to diseases such as autoimmune diseases, allergy, and chronic inflammatory diseases; and (3) acquire the necessary foundational knowledge of virology, mycology, parasitology, and bacteriology to understand how infectious microbes cause organ‑specific and systemic diseases.

Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

  1. Describe the development and senescence of the immune system.
  2. Describe the normal immune response to pathogenic insult and damaged or necrotic tissues.
  3. Describe the mechanisms of immune regulation.
  4. Describe the immunologic basis of diseases with an immune etiology or component.
  5. Explain the immunologic basis of vaccination, immunomodulation and immunotherpaies. 
  6. Describe the basic principles of infectious disease.
  7. Describe the methodology by which the clinical laboratory diagnoses, evaluates and monitors inflammation and infectious disease.
  8. Describe the basic biology of medically relevant infectious agents.
  9. Describe the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis.
  10. Explain the pharmacologic principles of antimicrobial therapy.
  11. Describe the therapeutic approach to treat the pathophysiologic effects of immunologically-and microbial-based diseases.
  12. Describe the pathologic consequences of infectious and immunologically-based diseases.
  13. Descrive the common infectious diseases, ectoparasitic infestations, and inflammatory disorders of the skin.
BIOM 6150 Basics of Immunology and Infectious Disease
Credits:
5
Directors:
Bauler, Van Enk, Lutwick
Description:

Basics of Immunology and Infectious Disease is a five-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of the principles of immunology and infectious diseases, and the application of this knowledge to immunologic, infectious, and rheumatologic (collagen vascular) diseases. The course integrates immunology through microbiology and includes relevant aspects of anatomy, histology, pharmacology, and pathology. Specifically, students: (1) learn about the soluble mediators, cells, and organs of the immune system and how these elements work together to prevent infection; (2) examine how the immune system causes and contributes to diseases such as autoimmune diseases, allergy, and chronic inflammatory diseases; and (3) acquire the necessary foundational knowledge of virology, mycology, parasitology, and bacteriology to understand how infectious microbes cause organ-specific and systemic diseases.

Objectives:
  • Describe the normal immune response to pathogenic insult and damaged or necrotic tissues.
  • Explain the immunologic basis of vaccination, immunomodulation and immunotherapies.
  • Describe the development and senescence of the immune system.
  • Describe the mechanisms of immune regulation.
  • Describe the immunologic basis of diseases with an immune etiology or component.
  • Describe the basic biology of medically relevant microbes.
  • Describe the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis.
  • Describe the methodology by which the clinical laboratory diagnoses, evaluates and monitors disease.
  • Describe the basic principles of infectious disease.
  • Explain the pharmacologic principles of antimicrobial therapy.
  • Describe the therapeutic approach to treat the pathophysiologic effects of immunologically- and microbial- based diseases.
  • Describe the pathologic consequences of infectious and immunologically-based diseases.
  • Describe the basic principles of epidemiology as they relate to the study, management, control and prevention of disease.
BIOM 6210 Normal and Forensic Anatomy
Credits:
4
Directors:
Lackey
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This is a five-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of all major anatomic structures of the human body. This course takes a systemic approach emphasizing gross anatomy and examines body systems interactions to form the functioning whole. Anatomy of organs and organ systems are correlated with physiologic functions. Imaging techniques including CT, MRI, and x‑rays are used to introduce the application of diagnostic imaging to the diagnosis of clinical disorders. Methods of forensic anatomy and anthropology are discussed in the context of the functions of the medical examiner.

Objectives:
  1. Identify and describe the gross anatomical structures of the back and thorax, abdominal wall, abdominal viscera, pelvis and reproductive organs, the upper and lower extremities, and the head and neck.
  2. Describe the forensic applications of back and thoracic skeletal anatomy, including: positive identification using standard x-ray, age-estimation, and injury patterns.
  3. Describe the forensic applications of the bony pelvis including estimation of age and sex.
  4. Describe the forensic applications of the bony extremities, including: positive identification using standard x-ray, stature estimation, and describing injury patterns.
  5. Describe the forensic applications of head and neck skeletal anatomy, including: positive identification using standard x-ray, sex and ancestry estimation, and describing injury patterns.
BIOM 6220 Histology and Cell Biology
Credits:
4
Directors:
Riddle
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This is a five-week lecture and laboratory course directed at an understanding of the structure of cells, tissues, and organs, and the functional significance of their morphological features. This course includes laboratory sessions of observations of human tissues through the study of digitized images (virtual slides). Students learn to identify specific structures, cells, tissues, and organs, and integrate basic concepts and principles of microanatomy as related to clinical medicine.

Objectives:
  1. Describe the microanatomical organization of cells,tissues, andorgans.
  2. Correlate the normal microanatomical structure of cells, tissues, and organs with function.
  3. Describe the fundamental concepts of embryology and development.
BIOM 6220 Histology and Cell Biology
Credits:
4
Directors:
Riddle
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

This is a five-week lecture and laboratory course directed at an understanding of the structure of cells, tissues, and organs, and the functional significance of their morphological features. The course includes laboratory sessions that feature observations of human tissues through the study of digitized images (virtual slides). Students learn to identify specific structures, cells, tissues, and organs, and integrate basic concepts and principles of microanatomy as related to clinical medicine.

Objectives:
  • Describe the microanatomicalorganization of cells, tissues, and organs.
  • Correlate the normal microanatomical structure of cells, tissues, and organs with function
  • Describe the fundamental concepts of embryology and development.
BIOM 7110 Molecular Foundations of Health and Disease
Credits:
2
Directors:
Quesnelle, Olken
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Molecular Foundations of Health and Disease is a three-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of the physiologic basis for macronutrient metabolism including the types of macromolecules that are metabolized to fuel, and physiologic states that alter macronutrient requirements such as starvation, trauma, and metabolic syndrome. The metabolism of glucose, generation of energy from glucose in the form of ATP, the hormonal regulation of glucose homeostasis, and consequences of defective glucose regulation that result in diabetes serve as the central content theme throughout the course. The course provides an introduction to anatomy, genetics, biochemistry, and pharmacology. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to reinforce basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Understand how carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are utilized as fuels.
  • Describe the methods used to measure nutritional status and explain how age, trauma, and starvation alter energy and nutritional requirements.
  • Describe the metabolic and pathologic consequences of being obese.
  • Define protein structure and the role of enzymes as catalysts, describe enzyme kinetics, and differentiate between competitive and non-competitive inhibitors.
  • Describe the structure and function of cellular organelles including cell membranes, illustrate vesicular trafficking, and differentiate the different between the different classes of drug receptors.
  • List the major micronutrients, vitamins, and minerals and detect clinical signs of deficiency and toxicity associated with each.
  • Characterize how hormonal changes are regulated to affect nutrient metabolism.
  • Explain the significance of gene regulation and gene structure.
  • Discuss the mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in the body.
  • List the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, pre-diabetes, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome and understand surgical and pharmacologic treatments for these diagnoses.
  • Understand a basic anatomical vocabulary, identify the major organs, and compare and contrast imaging techniques.
BIOM 7110 Molecular Foundations of Health and Disease
Credits:
3
Directors:
Quesnelle, Olken
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Molecular Foundations of Health and Disease is a three-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of the physiologic basis for macronutrient metabolism including the types of macromolecules that are metabolized to fuel, and physiologic states that alter macronutrient requirements such as starvation, trauma, and metabolic syndrome. The metabolism of glucose, generation of energy from glucose in the form of ATP, the hormonal regulation of glucose homeostasis, and consequences of defective glucose regulation that result in diabetes serve as the central content theme throughout the course. The course provides an introduction to anatomy, genetics, biochemistry, and pharmacology. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to reinforce basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Understand how carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are utilized as fuels.
  • Describe the methods used to measure nutritional status and explain how age, trauma, and starvation alter energy and nutritional requirements.
  • Describe the metabolic and pathologic consequences of being obese.
  • Define protein structure and the role of enzymes as catalysts, describe enzyme kinetics, and differentiate between competitive and non-competitive inhibitors.
  • Describe the structure and function of cellular organelles including cell membranes, illustrate vesicular trafficking, and differentiate the different between the different classes of drug receptors.
  • List the major micronutrients, vitamins, and minerals and detect clinical signs of deficiency and toxicity associated with each.
  • Characterize how hormonal changes are regulated to affect nutrient metabolism.
  • Explain the significance of gene regulation and gene structure.
  • Discuss the mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in the body.
  • List the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, pre-diabetes, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome and understand surgical and pharmacologic treatments for these diagnoses.
  • Understand a basic anatomical vocabulary, identify the major organs, and compare and contrast imaging techniques.
BIOM 7110 Molecular Foundations of Health and Disease
Credits:
6
Directors:
Garrow, Olken
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Molecular Foundations of Health and Disease is a six-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of the role of cells within the body, regulation of cellular growth and early development, and the regulation of energy metabolism. Cellular biochemistry and basic anatomical structure are introduced emphasizing the role of cells as the basic building blocks in ahierarchal system that increases in complexity as cells form tissues, organs, and organ systems. The influence nutrition and physiological state have on macronutrient metabolism is covered with special emphasis on the integration of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in different organ systems. The consequences of defective glucose metabolism serves as a major clinical theme throughout the course.

Objectives:
  • Explain the structural organization of the body from the cellular to the organ level differentiating the four cell types found in the body.
  • Define protein structure and the role of enzymes as catalysts, describe enzyme kinetics, and differentiate between competitive and non-competitive inhibitors.
  • Describe the structure and function of cellular organelles including cell membranes, illustrate vesicular trafficking, and differentiate classes of drug receptors.
  • Explain the principles of receptor pharmacology including agonist, antagonist, receptor reserve, drug selectivity, potency, and efficacy.
  • Describe how carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are utilized as fuels.
  • Describe the overall design and purpose of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation and how these pathways are coordinately regulated.
  • Describe the overall design and purpose of gluconeogenesis and how it is regulated.
  • Describe the metabolism of fructose and galactose and identify diseases that arise from defects in their metabolism.
  • Describe the overall design and purpose of glycogen storage and degradation, comparing and contrasting the role of glycogen metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle.
  • Describe the role of the pentose phosphate pathway in the production of NADPH and pentose phosphate.
  • Describe the structure and synthesis of fatty acids, triacylglycerides, and membrane lipids.
  • Describe the process of fatty acid oxidation and the generation of energy from fatty acid oxidation.
  • Define the role of fatty acids and ketone bodies in fuel homeostasis.
  • Describe how changes in macronutrient intake influence pancreatic hormone secretion and energy metabolism in liver, skeletal muscle, adipose, kidney and brain.
  • Discuss the mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in the body.
  • Explain how dietary lipids are carried in the blood and the underlying genetic basis and clinical presentation of severe elevations in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.
  • Compare and contrast the function and regulation of mitosis versus meiosis.
  • Explain cellular signal transduction pathways using receptors, second messengers, kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors, including regulation of plasma glucose levels.
  • Describe the biological and physiological nature of extracellular and secondary messenger systems.
  • Describe the basic structure, function and cellular distribution of cell adhesion proteins.
  • Compare and contrast the molecular and histological differences between cellular necrosis and apoptosis.
  • List the vitamins and minerals and know the clinical signs of deficiency and toxicity associated with each.
  • Define embryonic stem cells and the different developmental capacities (potencies) associated with these cell types.
  • Describe the key events in early and late embryological development, the genetic processes that regulate development.
  • List the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, pre-diabetes, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, obesity and metabolic syndrome and understand surgical and pharmacologic treatments for these diagnoses.
BIOM 7120 Cellular Foundations of Health and Disease
Credits:
4
Directors:
Bauler, Sheakley, D. Patel
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Cellular Foundations of Health and Disease is a four-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of the role of cells within the body. Cellular biochemistry, anatomical structure, and physiological function are introduced and then expanded, emphasizing the role of cells as the basic building blocks in a hierarchal system that increases in complexity as cells form tissues, organs, organ systems, and the whole organism. Cellular hormonal and neuronal control mechanisms are described at the biochemical, histological, and physiological levels. The principle of homeostasis is defined at the level of cell, tissues, organs, and at whole body level, with signals arising from the body’s four tissue types used as examples of the importance of this process in the control of body function. The autonomic nervous system is described in detail and then employed as the starting point for teaching of the foundations of human pharmacology. Pharmacological principles outlined include pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics (personalized medicine), and toxicity. The use of drugs for the treatment of disease is introduced with an overview of how clinical laboratory methodology can be employed to provide scientific data for the diagnosis, evaluation, and monitoring of microbial disease and its pharmacological treatment. The course introduces the basic biology of medically relevant microbes, the basic principles of infectious disease, the underlying mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, the immunologic basis of disease etiology and pathology, and vaccination and immunotherapy. The course provides an introduction to pathology, and deepens the introduction to anatomy and genetics. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

 

Objectives:
  • Explain the structural organization of the body into a functional unit from the cellular level to level of the whole body differentiating the four cell types found in the body.
  • Define the concept of homeostasis at the cellular, tissue, organ and organism levels
  • Explain how the principles of negative and positive feedback, hierarchy, redundancy and, adaptability are integral to homeostatic control.
  • List the common parameters of the extracellular fluid compartment that must be homeostatically regulated ([nutrients]; [O2]/[CO2]; [waste products]; [H+] = pH; [H2O]/[Electrolytes]; volume and pressure; temperature), including normal blood chemistry values, plasma water and salt content regulation, and basis of cellular volume control.
  • Define how ions and molecules are transported across the cellular plasma membrane, epithelial organs, and capillaries, as well as the relevance of these processes to disease, including the ionic basis of cell membrane potential.
  • Define the biological and physiological nature of extracellular messengers, differentiating between hormone and neurotransmitter function.
  • Explain cellular signal transduction pathways using receptors, second messengers, kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors, including regulation of plasma glucose levels.
  • Compare and contrast the structure and function of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system including sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, cholinergic and adrenergic receptors, synaptic transmission, consequences of receptor dysfunction, and drugs that used to manage receptor dysfunction.
  • Describe the pharmacodynamics of drugs in terms of concentration, dose, and response.
  • Explain the principles of receptor pharmacology including agonist, antagonist, receptor reserve, drug selectivity, potency, and efficacy.
  • Analyze pharmacological effects in terms of ligand or drug-receptor interactions and pharmacological effects in terms of drug absorption and distribution, therapeutic index, and toxicity.
  • Use pharmacokinetic principles and data to calculate drug loading and maintenance doses, and effects of drug metabolism, excretion, and elimination effects the plasma concentration of drugs.
  • Describe the process in which new drugs are developed, tested, and approved for medical use in the United States.
  • Identify the components of personalized medicine and describe how they might impact patient health with regard to pharmacogenomics.
  • Describe the basic biology of medically relevant microbes.
  • Describe the methodology by which the clinical laboratory diagnoses, evaluates and monitors microbial disease.
  • Describe the basic mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, the epidemiology relating to the management, control, and prevention of disease.
  • Explain the pharmacologic principles of antimicrobial therapy and the general therapeutic approach to treat microbial-based diseases.
BIOM 7120 Genetic and Metabolic Disorders
Credits:
6
Directors:
Larson, Garrow, Prahlow
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Genetic and Metabolic Disorders is a six-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of medical biochemistry relevant to the metabolism of macromolecular precursors and the genetic basis of disease. Medically-important metabolism of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides, will be covered in the context of disease. The course also provides insight into ethanol metabolism and tissue damage associated with reactive oxygen species. Clinical disorders that have a genetic component will be covered, while a molecular framework is built for understanding disease etiology, modern diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. An overview of the basic genetics of medically important infectious agents, gene regulation, and population genetics will provide a background on the genetic underpinnings of human disease.

Objectives:
  • Describe how the urea cycle maintains a proper nitrogen balance, and allows for excretion of excess ammonium in the form of urea.
  • Explain the characteristics and pathophysiology of lysosomal storage diseases and hypercholesterolemia. 
  • List essential and nonessential amino acids, and describe conditions where nonessential amino acids become conditionally essential.
  • Describe how amino acids are synthesized and degraded.
  • Describe the roles of folic acid and S-adenosylmethionine in the transfer of one-carbon units between molecules.
  • Differentiate between the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and forms of cellular toxicity associated with free-radical injury.
  • Differentiate between disease states associated with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism.
  • Describe the metabolism of ethanol and the associated toxic effects of ethanol metabolism.
  • Describe the de novo and salvage pathways for purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, and associated clinical disorders.
  • Describe protein-energy nutrition spectrum disorders.
  • Describe human gene structure and the content of the human genome.
  • Explain basic human and bacterial chromosome structure, eukaryotic chromatin, and chromosomal abnormalities associated with disease.
  • Describe the fundamental processes of DNA replication, transcription and translation.
  • Apply knowledge of cytogenetics and molecular genetics to describe the principles, uses, and limitations of genetic testing technologies.
  • Explain how various DNA mutation and exchange processes influence single-gene and chromosomal level alterations that cause disease.
  • Explain the role of regulatory RNAs in gene expression and therapeutic intervention.
  • Describe the major mechanisms of DNA repair and the disease-related consequences of genome instability.
  • Describe mechanisms of genetic/genomic variation that explain variation in normal phenotypic expression, disease phenotypes, and treatment plans.
  • Describe Mendelian inheritance and the use of pedigrees to explain inheritance patterns, and differentiate single-gene from multifactorial disease.
  • Explain how factors such as reduced penetrance and variable expressivity affect the phenotypic expression of a disease and the observed pattern of inheritance.
  • Describe the molecular and genetic contributors to malignant transformation and the tissue-specific changes associated with neoplasia.
  • Explain dynamic mutations, repeat expansions, and the concept of anticipation.
  • Explain the relationship between gene interactions and traits, articulating how a single genotype can influence multiple phenotypes and development via modifier genes and epistasis.
  • Identify the components of personalized medicine and describe how they might impact patient health with regard to pharmacogenomics.
  • Describe normal and abnormal mammalian sexual development and explain the factors contributing congenital defects and dysmorphology.
  • Explain the role of epigenetics in gene regulation and development, connecting chromatin states with imprinting diseases and X-inactivation.
  • Describe the mitochondrial genome and mitochondrial diseases.
  • Explain the basic biology of medically relevant microbes and describe the genetic processes that contribute to antimicrobial resistance.
  • Define the general concepts of antiviral drug therapy.
  • Apply the principles of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to genetic variation in populations and for calculating carrier frequency.
  • Describe the basic molecular technologies in biomedicine, including exome and whole genome sequencing.
  • Explain the various strategies for treating genetic diseases using gene targeting or silencing methodologies.
BIOM 7130 Genetic Foundations of Health and Disease
Credits:
4
Directors:
Vanden Heuvel, Ten Eyck, Leonov
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Genetics Foundations of Health and Disease is a four-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of human medical genetic concepts and clinical disorders that have a genetic component. The course also provides an overview of the basic genetics of medically important infectious agents that contribute to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to reinforce basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Describe the processes of DNA replication, transcription and translation; illustrate the role of templates in these processes; recognize diseases that are associated with defective replication, transcription or translation.
  • List the types and causes of DNA mutation, the mechanisms of DNA repair and the functional consequences of mutation.
  • Describe mechanisms of genetic/genomic variation that explain variation in normal phenotypic expression, disease phenotypes, and treatment options including genomic imprinting, uniparental disomy, and triplet expansion errors.
  • Describe Mendelian inheritance and recognize pedigree patterns such as autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked recessive, and X-linked dominant to diagnose a clinical case, and differentiate the inheritance patterns of multifactorial inheritance disorders with single-gene disorders.
  • Explain how factors such as reduced penetrance and variable expressivity affect the phenotypic expression of a disease and the observed pattern of inheritance.
  • Understand the relationship between gene interactions and the measurable traits of an individual articulating how a single genotype can influence multiple phenotypes through mechanisms such as the function of modifier genes and epistasis.
  • Define the concept of epigenetics, explain the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulation of gene expression, development and disease, and describe how environmental exposures can influence epigenetic modifications.
  • Compare and contrast the function and regulation of mitosis versus meiosis, and describe the differences between euploidy, aneuploidy, and other chromosomal abnormalities.
  • Describe the key events in early and late embryological development, the genetic processes that regulate development, and diseases that result from the disruption of these processes including types of errors in morphology that lead to congenital birth defects.
  • Define embryonic stem cells and the different developmental capacities (potencies) associated with these cell types.
  • Describe normal and abnormal mammalian sexual development and explain the factors that control sexual development.
  • Define the clinical indications for cytogenetic/molecular cytogenetic studies, and apply knowledge of cytogenetics and molecular genetics to describe the principles, uses and limitations of genetic testing technologies.
  • Describe the basic concepts of emerging molecular technologies including expression based techniques, exome and whole genome sequencing, and generation of transgenic models.
  • Describe applications of gene targeting in biomedicine and treatment strategies for genetic diseases.
  • Define pharmacogenomics comparing personalized versus non-personalized forms of medical therapy, and describe how biomarkers can be used as indicators of different disease states and could be applied to various clinical situations.
  • Describe the mitochondrial genome and contrast with the nuclear genome.
  • Describe the nucleic acid composition, structure, replication and reproduction of microbes (including prions), and describe the genetic processes that contribute to antimicrobial resistance.
  • Define the general concepts of antiviral drug therapy.
  • Explain how dietary lipids are carried in the blood and the underlying genetic basis and clinical presentation of severe elevations in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) levels.
BIOM 7130 Systems Regulation
Credits:
3
Directors:
Bauler, Sheakley, Gregoire-Bottex
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Systems Regulation is a three-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of molecular and physiologic processes that regulate the activity of multiple organ systems.  Cellular transport of ions and molecules is introduced, emphasizing genetic and microbial diseases that interfere with the normal function of transporters. The principle of homeostasis is defined at the level of cells, tissues, organs, and the whole body, with examples to demonstrate the importance of homeostasis in the control of body function. The autonomic nervous system is described in detail and then employed as the starting point for teaching of the foundations of human pharmacology. Pharmacological principles outlined include pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity. The course introduces the immune system, and then expands on the systemic role of inflammation in disease.
 

Objectives:
  • Explain how ions and molecules are transported across the cellular plasma membrane, epithelial organs, and capillaries, as well as the relevance of these processes to disease.
  • Compare and contrast anatomical imaging techniques.
  • Explain the concept of homeostasis at the cellular, tissue, organ and organism levels, including how the principles of negative and positive feedback, hierarchy, redundancy, and adaptability are integral to homeostatic control.
  • List the common parameters influencing the extracellular fluid compartment that are homeostatically regulated, and describe plasma water and salt content regulation as the basis of cellular volume control.
  • Compare and contrast the structure and function of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system, including cholinergic and adrenergic receptors, consequences of receptor dysfunction, and drugs used to manage receptor dysfunction.
  • Describe the pathophysiology of organophosphate poisoning and pheochromocytoma as related to autonomic nervous system function.
  • Describe the pharmacodynamics of drugs in terms of concentration, dose, and response.
  • Analyze pharmacological effects in terms of ligand or drug-receptor interactions and pharmacological effects in terms of drug absorption and distribution, therapeutic index, and toxicity.
  • Apply pharmacokinetic principles and data to calculate drug loading and maintenance doses, and effects of drug metabolism, excretion, and elimination effects the plasma concentration of drugs.
  • Describe the functions of the major components of the immune system.
  • Describe the immunology and pathology of inflammation, and discuss the role of NSAIDs in the treatment of inflammation.
BIOM 7140 Metabolic Foundations of Health and Disease
Credits:
3
Directors:
Garrow, Wilke
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Metabolic Foundations of Health and Disease is a three-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of medical biochemistry related to the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides with special emphasis on defects in these metabolic pathways and their clinical relevance. Special emphasis is placed on the integration of metabolic pathways and the regulation of metabolism in different organ systems under different nutritional stress. The course also provides insight into ethanol metabolism as well as the formation of reactive oxygen species and the potential tissue damage associated with oxygen radical formation. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Describe the overall design and purpose of gluconeogenesis, its reactants and products, cellular and tissue localization, and how it is regulated.
  • Describe the metabolism of fructose and galactose and identify diseases that arise from defects in their metabolism.
  • Describe the role of the pentose phosphate pathway in the production of NADPH and pentose phosphate.
  • Describe how the urea cycle maintains a proper nitrogen balance, and allows for excretion of excess ammonium in the form of urea.
  • Define the roles of folic acid and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the transfer of one-carbon units between molecules.
  • Define essential and nonessential amino acids, list which nonessential amino acids can upon certain conditions become conditional essential.
  • Identify intermediates from glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway that can serve as precursors for the synthesis of nonessential amino acids, and the anabolic reactions of non-essential amino acids.
  • Define ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids and the pathways of amino acid degradation.
  • Differentiate the following disease states associated with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism: cystinuria, histidinemia, phelyketonuria, methylmalonyl CoA mutase deficiency, homocystinuria, alcaptonuria, maple syrup urine disease, cystathioninuria, and tyrosinemia.
  • Describe the structure and synthesis of fatty acids, triacylglycerides, and membrane lipids.
  • Describe the process of fatty acid oxidation and the generation of energy from fatty acid oxidation.
  • Define the role of fatty acids and ketone bodies in fuel homeostasis.
  • Describe the de novo and salvage pathways for purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis.
  • List the gene disorders and diseases associated with purine and pyrimidine metabolism, the metabolite that accumulates, and the clinical symptoms of the disease.
  • Describe the metabolism of ethanol and the associated toxic effects of ethanol metabolism.
  • Differentiate between the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen-oxygen species (RNOS) and forms of cellular toxicity associated with free-radicle injury.
BIOM 7140 Musculoskeletal
Credits:
5
Directors:
Lackey, Baker
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Musculoskeletal provides a fundamental understanding of musculoskeletal basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge. The five-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the musculoskeletal system and integument including embryology, anatomy, histology, biochemistry, genetics, physiology, microbiology, immunology, pathology, pharmacology, and therapeutics.  Human gross anatomical dissection is an integral component of the course that facilitates the students understanding of anatomical structure/function relationships. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications. Students gain additional experience in teaching their peers in this course.

Objectives:
  1. Describe the normal development/embryology of the musculoskeletal system and limb development.
  2. Describe the normal organ structure and function of components of the musculoskeletal system (bones, joints, tendons, skeletal muscle, and cartilage)
  3. Describe the normal cellular and tissue structure of components of the musculoskeletal system (bones, joints, tendons, skeletal muscle, and cartilage)
  4. Describe normal somatic muscle action.
  5. Compare and contrast normal and abnormal muscle and joint movement.
  6. Describe and compare and contrast age-associated (pediatric and geriatric) conditions.
  7. Describe the process of repair, regeneration, and age-associated changes to the skeletal system.
  8. Describe, compare, and contrast degenerative and metabolic disorders of the bone, tendon, muscle, ligaments, and fascia.
  9. Describe infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
  10. Describe pharmacologic mechanism of drug actions in therapies to treat rheumatologic diseases.
  11. Demonstrate the basic science principles (gross and histological anatomy, physiological processes, immunology, microbiology, genetics, biochemistry) as they pertain to the following clinical scenarios: trauma and healing, sports injuries, rheumatologic disorders, and disorders associated with growth and development and aging
  12. Describe neoplastic disorders of muscle and bone.
  13. Describe the musculoskeletal elements responsible for movement of the spine and limbs.
  14. Demonstrate normal and abnormal musculoskeletal imaging principles of the spine and extremities.
  15. Describe genetic basis and pathophysiologic processes associated with musculoskeletal disorders.
  16. Describe the normal gross anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges
  17. Describe general motor and sensory pathways to and from the periphery to the spinal cord.
  18. Describe common site of peripheral compression neuropathies.
  19. Describe and demonstrate peripheral nerves to the trunk and extremities.
  20. Describe normal organ structure and function of the skin including barrier function and thermal regulation.
  21. Describe the normal cellular and tissue structure and function of the skin.
  22. Describe the normal repair processes to skin wounds.
BIOM 7150 Immunology and Infectious Diseases
Credits:
5
Directors:
Bauler, Van Enk, Leonov
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Foundations of Immunology and Infectious Disease provides a fundamental understanding of the principles of immunology and infectious disease, and the application of this knowledge to immunologic, infectious, and rheumatologic diseases. The five-week course integrates immunology through the learning of microbiology and includes relevant aspects of anatomy, histology, pharmacology, and pathology. Specifically, students: (1) learn about the soluble mediators, cells, and organs of the immune system and how these elements work together to prevent infection; (2) examine how the immune system causes and contributes to diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy, and chronic inflammatory diseases; and (3) acquire the necessary foundational knowledge of virology, mycology, parasitology, and bacteriology to understand how infectious microbes cause organ-specific and systemic diseases. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications. After completing this course, medical students are able to apply the general concepts of immunology and infectious disease to specific diseases they encounter in future organ-based courses.

Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

  1. Describe the development and senescence of the immune system.
  2. Describe the normal immune response to pathogenic insult and damaged or necrotic tissues.
  3. Describe the mechanisms of immune regulation.
  4. Describe the immunologic basis of diseases with an immune etiology or component.
  5. Explain the immunologic basis of vaccination, immunomodulation and immunotherapies.
  6. Describe the basic principles of infectious disease.
  7. Describe the methodology by which the clinical laboratory diagnoses, evaluates and monitors inflammation and infectious disease.
  8. Describe the basic biology of medically relevant infectious agents.
  9. Describe the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis.
  10. Explain the pharmacologic principles of antimicrobial therapy.
  11. Describe the therapeutic approach to treat the pathophysiologic effects of immunologically- and microbial-based diseases.
  12. Describe the pathologic consequences of infectious and immunologically-based diseases.
  13. Describe the common infectious diseases, ectoparasitic infestations, and inflammatory disorders of the skin.
BIOM 7150 Foundations of Immunology and Infectious Disease
Credits:
5
Directors:
Bauler, Van Enk, Lutwick
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Foundations of Immunology and Infectious Disease provides a fundamental understanding of the principles of immunology and infectious disease, and the application of this knowledge to immunologic, infectious, and rheumatologic diseases. The five-week course integrates immunology through the learning of microbiology and includes relevant aspects of anatomy, histology, pharmacology, and pathology. Specifically, students: (1) learn about the soluble mediators, cells, and organs of the immune system and how these elements work together to prevent infection; (2) examine how the immune system causes and contributes to diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy, and chronic inflammatory diseases; and (3) acquire the necessary foundational knowledge of virology, mycology, parasitology, and bacteriology to understand how infectious microbes cause organ-specific and systemic diseases. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications. After completing this course, medical students are able to apply the general concepts of immunology and infectious disease to specific diseases they encounter in future organ-based courses.

Objectives:
  • Describe the normal immune response to pathogenic insult and damaged or necrotic tissues.
  • Explain the immunologic basis of vaccination, immunomodulation and immunotherapies.
  • Describe the development and senescence of the immune system.
  • Describe the mechanisms of immune regulation.
  • Describe the immunologic basis of diseases with an immune etiology or component.
  • Describe the basic biology of medically relevant microbes.
  • Describe the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis.
  • Describe the methodology by which the clinical laboratory diagnoses, evaluates and monitors disease.
  • Describe the basic principles of infectious disease.
  • Explain the pharmacologic principles of antimicrobial therapy.
  • Describe the therapeutic approach to treat the pathophysiologic effects of immunologically- and microbial-based diseases.
  • Describe the pathologic consequences of infectious and immunologically-based diseases.
  • Describe the basic principles of epidemiology as they relate to the study, management, control and prevention of disease.
BIOM 7160 Hematology and Oncology
Credits:
4
Directors:
Quesnelle, Elliott, Mirro
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Hematology and Oncology provides a fundamental understanding of hematological and tumor biology basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to clinical hematology, hematological oncology, and cancer. The four-week course focuses on the mechanistic and pathophysiological aspects of blood physiology and neoplasia using clinical examples of the various anemias, leukemias, lymphomas, and selected solid tumors. An overview of basic tumor pathology includes development and progression of benign and malignant disease, grading and staging of tumors, carcinogenesis, and metastasis. The course covers the biological mechanisms underlying cellular growth control, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, tumor immunology, and the roles of oncogenes and tumor suppressor proteins. The pharmacology of major therapeutic agents used to treat hematological disorders and antineoplastic agents is described. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications. After completing this course, medical students are able to apply the general concepts of tumor biology and cancer therapeutics to specific neoplastic diseases they encounter in future organ-based courses.

Objectives:
  • Describe the morphology of erythrocytes and explain the production and function of hemoglobin, O2 and CO2 transport, and ABO/Rh blood types.
  • Explain hemostasis and the production and function of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors and predict the consequences of abnormal function of erythrocytes, platelets and blood proteins/hemostatic factors.
  • Explain the abnormal processes associated with non-malignant blood disorders including congenital and acquired anemias and cytopenias; cythemia; hemorrhagic and hemostatic disorders; bleeding secondary to platelet disorders and complications of transfusion.
  • Explain the abnormal processes associated with malignant blood disorders including leukemia, lymphomas, and myelodysplastic disorders.
  • Explain the mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs and other therapeutic modalities for treatment of disorders of the hematopoietic system including; blood and blood products, treatments for anemia, stimulation of RBC and leukocyte production, anticoagulants and thrombolytic agents, anti-platelet drugs, anti-neoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs, and drugs used to treat acquired disorders of immune responsiveness.
  • Define the characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms, and describe the system utilized for tumor grading.
  • Describe the process of malignant transformation in terms of progression, invasion, and metastasis.
  • Differentiate between the types of carcinogens including; chemicals, radiation, environmental factors, and oncogenic viruses.
  • Describe methods for the detection of tumors, tumor biomarkers and the diagnosis of tumors including; proteomics, genomics, micro-array analysis, and imaging techniques.
  • Describe the process under which chemotherapeutic drugs are developed and enter clinical use (drug trials).
  • Classify the common anti-tumor drugs according to their mechanism of action and clinical use.
  • Compare different growth factor pathways through the differences in utilization of receptors, second messengers, kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors.
  • Recognize the major mechanisms involved in regulating cell proliferation, including cell cycle checkpoints, growth factors, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, interaction with extracellular matrix components, and cell signaling.
  • Define and differentiate between necrosis and the intrinsic, extrinsic, and cellular mediated pathways of apoptosis, and the role of apoptosis in tumorigenesis.
  • Describe the role of angiogenesis in tumorigenesis.
  • Describe the role of immunological evasion and inflammation in tumorigenesis.
  • Define senescence and the role of telomerases.
  • Define the role of stem cells in tumor biology.
  • Describe the role of radiation in the treatment of cancer including radiation safety concerns.
BIOM 7210 Neurology
Credits:
5
Directors:
Riddle, Phillips
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Neurology provides a fundamental understanding of neurological basic science principles and introduction to the application of these principles to diagnosing and treating neurological diseases. The five-week course covers normal features and processes of the nervous system, including embryology, anatomy, physiology, microbiology, and immunology, and relates these to pathologies of the nervous system. The course explores the organization, development, and physiology of the human central nervous system in relation to the essential principles of neurological function. This exploration extends from the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuronal signaling to the organization and function of sensory and motor systems and of higher order, integrative systems. The course provides an understanding of the neural and vascular anatomy of the human brain and spinal cord that is sufficient for localizing lesions within the central nervous system and that supports understanding and performing an effective neurological examination. The course equips students to interpret impairments of sensation, motor function, and cognition that accompany neurological injury and disease, as well as to develop and test mechanistic hypotheses to explain clinical signs and symptoms. The course provides an introduction to pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for neurological disorders, as well as to basic principles of neuropathology and neuroradiology. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Identify in gross- and histological specimens and in appropriate radiological images key features of: i) the basic organization of the nervous system, ii) the surface anatomy and vasculature of the brain and spinal cord, and iii) the organization of sensory and motor tracts in the brain and spinal cord.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the fundamental mechanisms of neuronal excitability, signal generation and propagation, and synaptic transmission, as well as mechanisms of signal integration and neural plasticity. Identify common disorders of neuronal excitability, their clinical presentations, and their treatments.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the roles of glial cells in the central- and peripheral nervous systems; identify clinical signs and symptoms and discuss neurological tests associated with disorders of myelinating cells.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss key principles of the metabolic support of neural function, the organization of the neural microvasculature, and the structures and mechanisms that control movement of nutrients and other materials into and out of the central nervous system. Describe the mechanisms, clinical presentations, and treatment of stroke and other common neurovascular disorders.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss key events and regulatory processes involved in building the nervous system during embryonic development and in early postnatal life. Identify the most common disorders of neural development, their etiology, their clinical presentation, and their prognosis.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the overall organization and function of the sensory systems that determine our perception of the world and our relationship to it: somatic sensory systems and the proprioceptive, visual, auditory, vestibular, and chemical senses.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the histopathological and pathophysiological changes underlying common causes of blindness, deafness, pain, and dysfunctions of balance.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the organization and function of the brain and spinal mechanisms that govern movement of the body and its parts.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the histopathological and pathophysiological changes underlying common causes of hypokinesia, hyperkinesia, and uncoordinated movement; describe tests commonly used to evaluate movement disorders and the mechanisms of action of common pharmacological agents used to treat them.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the organization of the autonomic nervous system, identify common causes and effects of autonomic dysfunction, and explain the mechanisms of action of pharmacological agents used to treat autonomic dysfunction.
  • Identify the primary regions and mechanisms in the brain that regulate primary integrative functions, including neuroendocrine function, neuroimmune function, emotional regulation, autonomic control, and sleep/wakefulness. Describe the clinical presentation and treatment of disorders of these integrative functions.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the organization of association systems of the cerebral hemispheres and the structure and function of cortical networks that control consciousness and that integrate perception, memory, and emotion in organizing behavior and planning.
  • Recognize the clinical indications of altered mental status and identify common causes of acute and chronic changes in mental status.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss aging-related changes in brain structure and neurological function and the criteria that distinguish normal from pathological aging. Describe neurobiological mechanisms underlying normal- and pathological changes in cognitive- and other neural function that are associated with aging.
  • Recognize clinical presentations and describe pathophysiological changes associated with infectious and neoplastic disorders of the nervous system.
  • Identify the major classes of neuropharmacological agents, their mechanisms of action, their indications, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties, and their primary side effects and contraindications.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the structural and functional principles underlying execution and interpretation of neurological and neurocognitive examinations in the clinic.
BIOM 7210 Hematology and Oncology
Credits:
4
Directors:
Quesnelle, Elliott, Mirro
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Hematology and Oncology provides a fundamental understanding of hematological and tumor biology basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to clinical hematology, hematological oncology, and cancer. The four-week course focuses on the mechanistic and pathophysiological aspects of blood physiology and neoplasia using clinical examples of the various anemias, leukemias, lymphomas, and selected solid tumors. An overview of basic tumor pathology includes development and progression of benign and malignant disease, grading and staging of tumors, carcinogenesis, and metastasis. The course covers the biological mechanisms underlying cellular growth control, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, tumor immunology, and the roles of oncogenes and tumor suppressor proteins. The pharmacology of major therapeutic agents used to treat hematological disorders and antineoplastic agents is described. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications. After completing this course, medical students are able to apply the general concepts of tumor biology and cancer therapeutics to specific neoplastic diseases they encounter in future organ-based courses.

Objectives:
  • Describe the morphology of erythrocytes and explain the production and function of hemoglobin, O2 and CO2 transport, and ABO/Rh blood types.
  • Explain hemostasis and the production and function of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors and predict the consequences of abnormal function of erythrocytes, platelets and blood proteins/hemostatic factors.
  • Explain the abnormal processes associated with non-malignant blood disorders including congenital and acquired anemias and cytopenias; cythemia; hemorrhagic and hemostatic disorders; bleeding secondary to platelet disorders and complications of transfusion.
  • Explain the abnormal processes associated with malignant blood disorders including leukemia, lymphomas, and myelodysplastic disorders.
  • Explain the mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs and other therapeutic modalities for treatment of disorders of the hematopoietic system including; blood and blood products, treatments for anemia, stimulation of RBC and leukocyte production, anticoagulants and thrombolytic agents, anti-platelet drugs, anti-neoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs, and drugs used to treat acquired disorders of immune responsiveness.
  • Define the characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms, and describe the system utilized for tumor grading.
  • Describe the process of malignant transformation in terms of progression, invasion, and metastasis.
  • Differentiate between the types of carcinogens including; chemicals, radiation, environmental factors, and oncogenic viruses.
  • Describe methods for the detection of tumors, tumor biomarkers and the diagnosis of tumors including; proteomics, genomics, micro-array analysis, and imaging techniques.
  • Describe the process under which chemotherapeutic drugs are developed and enter clinical use (drug trials).
  • Classify the common anti-tumor drugs according to their mechanism of action and clinical use.
  • Compare different growth factor pathways through the differences in utilization of receptors, second messengers, kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors.
  • Recognize the major mechanisms involved in regulating cell proliferation, including cell cycle checkpoints, growth factors, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, interaction with extracellular matrix components, and cell signaling.
  • Define and differentiate between necrosis and the intrinsic, extrinsic, and cellular mediated pathways of apoptosis, and the role of apoptosis in tumorigenesis.
  • Describe the role of angiogenesis in tumorigenesis.
  • Describe the role of immunological evasion and inflammation in tumorigenesis.
  • Define senescence and the role of telomerases.
  • Define the role of stem cells in tumor biology.
  • Describe the role of radiation in the treatment of cancer including radiation safety concerns.
BIOM 7220 Cardiovascular
Credits:
5
Directors:
Sheakley, Reinoehl
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Cardiovascular provides a fundamental understanding of cardiovascular basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to cardiovascular diseases. The six-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the cardiovascular system, including an integrated presentation of embryology, anatomy, physiology, microbiology, and immunology, and their relation to pathologies of the cardiovascular system. Woven through these topics is the practical introduction to key elements of the physical examination of the heart, and basic electrocardiogram interpretation. In addition, current evidence supporting methods of risk assessment, diagnostic testing, and pharmacologic prevention and management of cardiovascular disease are examined. Clinical scenarios such as shock and bradycardia are presented in high fidelity simulation. In addition, clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format, including valvular heart disease, atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction, congenital heart defect, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmias, The simulations and team-based learning cases provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications. 

Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

  • Describe the normal gross structure, histology, and physiology of the heart and vascular beds.
  • Describe the gross structure, histology, and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system seen in common diseases and conditions.
  • Compare and contrast the physiology of the systemic and pulmonary circulations.
  • Describe the molecular, biochemical and cellular mechanisms that enable the cardiovascular system to maintain the body’s homeostasis, especially blood pressure.
  • Recognize the molecular basis of cardiac contractility and electrophysiology, and describe how abnormalities of these mechanisms produce important cardiovascular diseases.
  • Interpret simple ECG’s based on an understanding of membrane potentials and electrical wave propagation in the heart.
  • Identify the common electrocardiographic abnormalities and arrhythmias.
  • Describe the causes (genetic, developmental, microbiologic, autoimmune, metabolic, toxic, and traumatic) of cardiovascular dysfunction.
  • Recognize the importance of genetic factors in the production of certain cardiovascular diseases.
  • Describe the clinical presentations (symptoms and signs) of the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system.
  • Describe the essential pathological features of important cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, cardiomyopathy, pericardial disease, ischemic heart disease, and valvular heart disease.
  • Identify auscultatory findings associated with common valvular and congenital heart abnormalities.
  • Identify and describe heart failure based on an understanding of cardiac preload and afterload.
  • Identify and describe valvular heart disease based on an understanding of the events of cardiac cycle.
  • Identify and describe ischemic heart disease based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology.
  • Apply the principles of pharmacology, therapeutics, and therapeutic decision making to cardiovascular dysfunction.
  • Demonstrate your understanding of the use and limits of laboratory diagnostic methods in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.
  • Describe the epidemiology of common cardiovascular maladies within a defined population, and the systematic approaches useful in reducing the incidence and prevalence of those maladies.
BIOM 7220 Musculoskeletal and Dermatology
Credits:
6
Directors:
Lackey, R. Baker, Tareen
Description:

Musculoskeletal and Dermatology provides a fundamental understanding of musculoskeletal and dermatological basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to musculoskeletal and dermatological diseases. The six-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the musculoskeletal system and integument including embryology, anatomy, histology, biochemistry, genetics, physiology, microbiology, immunology, pathology, pharmacology, and therapeutics.  Human gross anatomical dissection is an integral component of the course that facilitates the students understanding of anatomical structure/function relationships. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications. Students gain additional experience in teaching their peers in this course.

Objectives:
  • Describe the development/embryology of the musculoskeletal system and limb development.
  • Describe the histologic structures of skeletal muscle, bone, cartilage, tendon, and skin.
  • Describe normal somatic muscle action.
  • Compare and contrast normal and abnormal muscle and joint movement
  • Describe the structure/function of elements of the musculoskeletal system and associated pathophysiology.
  • Describe infectious and inflammatory disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
  • Describe pharmacologic mechanism of drug actions in therapies to treat rheumatologic diseases.
  • Describe neoplastic disorders of muscle and bone.
  • Describe the musculoskeletal elements responsible for movement of the spine and limbs.
  • Demonstrate normal and abnormal musculoskeletal imaging principles.
  • Demonstrate the basic science principles (gross and histological anatomy, physiological processes, immunology, microbiology, genetics, biochemistry) as they pertain to the following clinical scenarios: trauma and healing, sports injuries, rheumatologic disorders, and disorders associated with growth and development and aging.
  • Describe the development/embryology of skin and associated congenital malformations.
  • Describe the structure and function of skin.
  • Identify common bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections, infestations, and inflammatory disorders of the skin.
  • Describe skin cancers.
BIOM 7230 Pulmonary
Credits:
5
Directors:
Morris, Wilt
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Pulmonary provides a fundamental understanding of pulmonary basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to pulmonary diseases. The six-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the pulmonary system including embryology, anatomy, physiology, microbiology, and immunology, and relating these to pathologies of the pulmonary system.  The course starts with detailed and complete explanations of the physiological mechanisms that underlie the act of breathing, followed by exploration of the developmental anatomy of the lung, the gross anatomy of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Clinical problems and pulmonary function test data is examined at the molecular level, the level of the alveolus, the chest wall, and the pulmonary circulation. The course covers pathophysiological changes in lung function and the spectrum of lung disorders commonly seen in the human population. Ventilation-perfusion inequality and gas exchange defects are presented in team based learning exercises. The neurological basis of ventilatory control is investigated, and the role of central and peripheral chemoreceptors in ventilatory drive are uncovered, including a detailed overview of the biochemistry of hydrogen buffering and the mixed physiological buffering mechanisms of the blood.  The clinical conditions of sleep apnea and related disorders, obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, neoplastic lung disease, immune mediated hemorrhage syndromes, bacterial and viral bronchitis, fungal and mycoplasma atypical pneumonia, atelectasis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pleural disease, acute lung injury and failing heart/pulmonary vascular disease are covered. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Explain the movement of air in the lungs, the transfer and rate of gas exchange across the alveolar membrane, and the homeostatic controls of lung ventilation to insure the needs of the body are met.
  • Describe the stages of lung development and the physiologic changes of lung function with aging, including the development of the airways, the alveolus, and the sinuses, the perinatal changes that allow the newborn to breath, and the effects of aging on the respiratory tract.
  • Describe the normal gross anatomy and function of the lung, diaphragm, thorax, nasopharynx and sinuses, and visceral and parietal pleurae.
  • Describe the normal histological structure of the lung including the respiratory passages, respiratory epithelium, alveoli, and pulmonary vasculature.
  • Define standard lung volumes and how they are measured; including forced expiratory flow (FEF), total lung capacity (or volume), airway resistance, compliance, and elastic recoil, and how these factors can alter distribution of ventilation throughout the lung and distinguish between obstructive and restrictive disease.
  • Describe the physical-chemical forces responsible for the movement of O2 into the blood and from the blood to the tissues of the body, describing forms in which O2 is transported, and determining the % O2 saturation of hemoglobin and partial pressure of O2 under various conditions.
  • Describe the forces responsible for the movement of CO2 from the tissues to the blood and list the forms in which CO2 is transported in the blood, diagraming the relationship between PCO2 and the concentration of CO2.
  • List factors that allow for adaptation to high altitude.
  • Describe the harmful effects of breathing N2 and O2 under high pressure, explaining how breathing high pressure gas mixtures influence PaO2, PaCO2, and PaN2.
  • Describe the blood flow, mean arterial pressures, venous pressures, and resistances to blood flow in the systemic and in the pulmonary circulations and explain the effects of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.
  • Define the physiological roles of pulmonary surfactant and alveoli interdependence, and describe the consequences of reduced lung surfactant levels.
  • Explain the traumatic mechanism by which pulmonary injury can occur, discussing treatment, clinical sequelae, and outcomes; including the pathophysiology of venous thromboembolic disease.
  • Describe the dynamic control mechanisms that regulate respiration; including neurological control, and functional properties of central and peripheral chemoreceptors and their role in hypoventilation and hyperventilation.
  • Explain the dynamic nature of plasma pH-balance, introducing the physiological concepts of plasma physiological buffering, the isohydric principle, buffering power, and anion gap.
  • Define pathophysiology, pharmacological treatment and surgical treatment of obstructive and restrictive airway disease.
  • Differentiate the pathophysiology of bronchiectatic syndromes.
  • Describe the anatomic changes in airways and lungs that accompany tobacco use.
  • Describe the physiology, pathology and histology of lung neoplasms, and describe treatment options (pharmacological/surgical).
  • Differentiate normal flora from abnormal flora in the lung, describing the cellular and humoral defenses of the lung, and the etiology of respiratory tract infections (bacterial, viral, and fungal).
  • Explain how systemic disorders (metabolic, heart, sleep related, and peripheral vascular disease) affect pulmonary function and describe pharmacological treatment options.
    BIOM 7230 Cardiovascular
    Credits:
    6
    Directors:
    Sheakley, Reinoehl
    Grading:
    Pass/Fail
    Description:

    Cardiovascular provides a fundamental understanding of cardiovascular basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to cardiovascular diseases. The six-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the cardiovascular system, including an integrated presentation of embryology, anatomy, physiology, microbiology, and immunology, and their relation to pathologies of the cardiovascular system. Woven through these topics is the practical introduction to key elements of the physical examination of the heart, and basic electrocardiogram interpretation. In addition, current evidence supporting methods of risk assessment, diagnostic testing, and pharmacologic prevention and management of cardiovascular disease are examined. Clinical scenarios such as shock and bradycardia are presented in high fidelity simulation. In addition, clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format, including valvular heart disease, atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction, congenital heart defect, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmias, The simulations and team-based learning cases provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications. 

    Objectives:
    • Describe the normal gross structure, histology, and physiology of the heart and vascular beds.
    • Describe the gross structure, histology, and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system seen in common diseases and conditions.
    • Compare and contrast the physiology of the systemic and pulmonary circulations.
    • Describe the molecular, biochemical and cellular mechanisms that enable the cardiovascular system to maintain the body’s homeostasis, especially blood pressure.
    • Recognize the molecular basis of cardiac contractility and electrophysiology, and describe how abnormalities of these mechanisms produce important cardiovascular diseases.
    • Interpret simple ECG’s based on an understanding of membrane potentials and electrical wave propagation in the heart.
    • Identify the common electrocardiographic abnormalities and arrhythmias.
    • Describe the causes (genetic, developmental, microbiologic, autoimmune, metabolic, toxic, and traumatic) of cardiovascular dysfunction.
    • Recognize the importance of genetic factors in the production of certain cardiovascular diseases.
    • Describe the clinical presentations (symptoms and signs) of the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system.
    • Describe the essential pathological features of important cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, cardiomyopathy, pericardial disease, ischemic heart disease, and valvular heart disease.
    • Identify auscultatory findings associated with common valvular and congenital heart abnormalities.
    • Identify and describe heart failure based on an understanding of cardiac preload and afterload.
    • Identify and describe valvular heart disease based on an understanding of the events of cardiac cycle.
    • Identify and describe ischemic heart disease based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology.
    • Apply the principles of pharmacology, therapeutics, and therapeutic decision making to cardiovascular dysfunction.
    • Demonstrate your understanding of the use and limits of laboratory diagnostic methods in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.
    • Describe the epidemiology of common cardiovascular maladies within a defined population, and the systematic approaches useful in reducing the incidence and prevalence of those maladies.

     

    BIOM 7240 Pulmonary
    Credits:
    6
    Directors:
    Morris, Wilt
    Grading:
    Pass/Fail
    Description:

    Pulmonary provides a fundamental understanding of pulmonary basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to pulmonary diseases. The six-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the pulmonary system including embryology, anatomy, physiology, microbiology, and immunology, and relating these to pathologies of the pulmonary system.  The course starts with detailed and complete explanations of the physiological mechanisms that underlie the act of breathing, followed by exploration of the developmental anatomy of the lung, the gross anatomy of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Clinical problems and pulmonary function test data is examined at the molecular level, the level of the alveolus, the chest wall, and the pulmonary circulation. The course covers pathophysiological changes in lung function and the spectrum of lung disorders commonly seen in the human population. Ventilation-perfusion inequality and gas exchange defects are presented in team based learning exercises. The neurological basis of ventilatory control is investigated, and the role of central and peripheral chemoreceptors in ventilatory drive are uncovered, including a detailed overview of the biochemistry of hydrogen buffering and the mixed physiological buffering mechanisms of the blood.  The clinical conditions of sleep apnea and related disorders, obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, neoplastic lung disease, immune mediated hemorrhage syndromes, bacterial and viral bronchitis, fungal and mycoplasma atypical pneumonia, atelectasis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pleural disease, acute lung injury and failing heart/pulmonary vascular disease are covered. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

    Objectives:
    • Explain the movement of air in the lungs, the transfer and rate of gas exchange across the alveolar membrane, and the homeostatic controls of lung ventilation to insure the needs of the body are met.
    • Describe the stages of lung development and the physiologic changes of lung function with aging, including the development of the airways, the alveolus, and the sinuses, the perinatal changes that allow the newborn to breath, and the effects of aging on the respiratory tract.
    • Describe the normal gross anatomy and function of the lung, diaphragm, thorax, nasopharynx and sinuses, and visceral and parietal pleurae.
    • Describe the normal histological structure of the lung including the respiratory passages, respiratory epithelium, alveoli, and pulmonary vasculature.
    • Define standard lung volumes and how they are measured; including forced expiratory flow (FEF), total lung capacity (or volume), airway resistance, compliance, and elastic recoil, and how these factors can alter distribution of ventilation throughout the lung and distinguish between obstructive and restrictive disease.
    • Describe the physical-chemical forces responsible for the movement of O2 into the blood and from the blood to the tissues of the body, describing forms in which O2 is transported, and determining the % O2 saturation of hemoglobin and partial pressure of O2 under various conditions.
    • Describe the forces responsible for the movement of CO2 from the tissues to the blood and list the forms in which CO2 is transported in the blood, diagraming the relationship between PCO2 and the concentration of CO2.
    • List factors that allow for adaptation to high altitude.
    • Describe the harmful effects of breathing N2 and O2 under high pressure, explaining how breathing high pressure gas mixtures influence PaO2, PaCO2, and PaN2.
    • Describe the blood flow, mean arterial pressures, venous pressures, and resistances to blood flow in the systemic and in the pulmonary circulations and explain the effects of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.
    • Define the physiological roles of pulmonary surfactant and alveoli interdependence, and describe the consequences of reduced lung surfactant levels.
    • Explain the traumatic mechanism by which pulmonary injury can occur, discussing treatment, clinical sequelae, and outcomes; including the pathophysiology of venous thromboembolic disease.
    • Describe the dynamic control mechanisms that regulate respiration; including neurological control, and functional properties of central and peripheral chemoreceptors and their role in hypoventilation and hyperventilation.
    • Explain the dynamic nature of plasma pH-balance, introducing the physiological concepts of plasma physiological buffering, the isohydric principle, buffering power, and anion gap.
    • Define pathophysiology, pharmacological treatment and surgical treatment of obstructive and restrictive airway disease.
    • Differentiate the pathophysiology of bronchiectatic syndromes.
    • Describe the anatomic changes in airways and lungs that accompany tobacco use.
    • Describe the physiology, pathology and histology of lung neoplasms, and describe treatment options (pharmacological/surgical).
    • Differentiate normal flora from abnormal flora in the lung, describing the cellular and humoral defenses of the lung, and the etiology of respiratory tract infections (bacterial, viral, and fungal).
    • Explain how systemic disorders (metabolic, heart, sleep related, and peripheral vascular disease) affect pulmonary function and describe pharmacological treatment options.
    BIOM 7240 Renal and Genitourinary
    Credits:
    5
    Directors:
    Vanden Heuvel, Lange
    Grading:
    Pass/Fail
    Description:

    Renal and Genitourinary provides a fundamental understanding of renal and genitourinary basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to renal and genitourinary diseases. The five-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the renal and genitourinary system including anatomy, biochemistry, genetics, physiology, microbiology, immunology, pathology, pharmacology and therapeutics, and preventive medicine. The course includes the structure and function of the kidneys, the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, and the common imbalances of renal physiology that result in disease. Working in groups, students will study a number of renal disorders in a team-based learning format including diabetic nephropathy, hypokalemia, renal cancer, transport disorders, and graft vs. host disease following renal transplantation. The course covers the pathophysiology of electrolyte disorders, acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, tubulo-interstitial disease, acute renal failure, chronic kidney disease, renal replacement therapies, and urology. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

    Objectives:

    Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

    • Discuss the normal and abnormal embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes of the renal and genitourinary system including congenital malformations.
    • Describe normal renal/GU structure and function, including the structure and function of the glomerulus and the physical determinants of glomerular ultrafiltration.
    • Discuss the regulation of acid-base homeostasis, and interpret metabolic disturbances including electrolyte and acid/base disorders.
    • Define renal clearance, renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, and filtration fraction and list typical values, and the myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms that regulate plasma flow and filtration rate.
    • Differentiate the transport mechanisms that contribute to the reabsorption of the filtered load of solute and water in the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal nephron that regulate osmolality, water balance potassium homeostasis, ureagenesis, and nitrogen excretion.
    • Describe and interpret the neurohormonal renal axis.
    • Differentiate nephritic and nephrotic syndromes.
    • Describe immune and non-immune mechanisms of renal injury.
    • Evaluate clinical and laboratory data including chemistries, urinalysis, biomarkers, and renal function tests, as they pertain to renal and genitourinary disease.
    • Discuss the effect of systemic diseases, including diabetes, on the renal system.
    • Discuss congenital and genetic disorders affecting the renal/urinary system, including cystic diseases, Bartter syndrome, Gitelman syndrome, and Liddle syndrome.
    • Articulate the role and mechanism of action of drugs used in the treatment of disorders of the renal and genitourinary system including anti-hypertensive drugs and their primary sites of action.
    • Describe the utility of radiologic and urologic procedures available to diagnose and treat common conditions including vesicoureteral reflux, nephrolithiasis, and various causes of urinary obstruction.
    • Review the indications for and mechanisms of renal replacement therapy including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and transplantation.
    • Describe the pathophysiology of tubulointerstitial and vascular disease.
    • Describe the mechanisms of acute and chronic infectious and inflammatory renal diseases, including acute and chronic pyelonephritis.
    • Describe the mechanisms and clinical course of acute renal failure.
    • Explain the increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its impact on the health care system.
    • Describe neoplastic kidney disease.
    • Integrate basic nutritional sciences with the relevant clinical conditions of the renal and genitourinary organ systems.
      BIOM 7250 Renal and Genitourinary
      Credits:
      5
      Directors:
      Vanden Heuvel, Lange
      Grading:
      Pass/Fail
      Description:

      Renal and Genitourinary provides a fundamental understanding of renal and genitourinary basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to renal and genitourinary diseases. The five-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the renal and genitourinary system including anatomy, biochemistry, genetics, physiology, microbiology, immunology, pathology, pharmacology and therapeutics, and preventive medicine. The course includes the structure and function of the kidneys, the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, and the common imbalances of renal physiology that result in disease. Working in groups, students will study a number of renal disorders in a team-based learning format including diabetic nephropathy, hypokalemia, renal cancer, transport disorders, and graft vs. host disease following renal transplantation. The course covers the pathophysiology of electrolyte disorders, acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, tubulo-interstitial disease, acute renal failure, chronic kidney disease, renal replacement therapies, and urology. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

      Objectives:
      • Discuss the normal and abnormal embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes of the renal and genitourinary system including congenital malformations.
      • Describe normal renal/GU structure and function, including the structure and function of the glomerulus and the physical determinants of glomerular ultrafiltration.
      • Discuss the regulation of acid-base homeostasis, and interpret metabolic disturbances including electrolyte and acid/base disorders.
      • Define renal clearance, renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, and filtration fraction and list typical values, and the myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms that regulate plasma flow and filtration rate.
      • Differentiate the transport mechanisms that contribute to the reabsorption of the filtered load of solute and water in the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal nephron that regulate osmolality, water balance potassium homeostasis, ureagenesis, and nitrogen excretion.
      • Describe and interpret the neurohormonal renal axis.
      • Differentiate nephritic and nephrotic syndromes.
      • Describe immune and non-immune mechanisms of renal injury.
      • Evaluate clinical and laboratory data including chemistries, urinalysis, biomarkers, and renal function tests, as they pertain to renal and genitourinary disease.
      • Discuss the effect of systemic diseases, including diabetes, on the renal system.
      • Discuss congenital and genetic disorders affecting the renal/urinary system, including cystic diseases, Bartter syndrome, Gitelman syndrome, and Liddle syndrome.
      • Articulate the role and mechanism of action of drugs used in the treatment of disorders of the renal and genitourinary system including anti-hypertensive drugs and their primary sites of action.
      • Describe the utility of radiologic and urologic procedures available to diagnose and treat common conditions including vesicoureteral reflux, nephrolithiasis, and various causes of urinary obstruction.
      • Review the indications for and mechanisms of renal replacement therapy including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and transplantation.
      • Describe the pathophysiology of tubulointerstitial and vascular disease.
      • Describe the mechanisms of acute and chronic infectious and inflammatory renal diseases, including acute and chronic pyelonephritis.
      • Describe the mechanisms and clinical course of acute renal failure.
      • Explain the increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its impact on the health care system.
      • Describe neoplastic kidney disease.
      • Integrate basic nutritional sciences with the relevant clinical conditions of the renal and genitourinary organ systems.
      BIOM 7250 Gastrointestinal
      Credits:
      5
      Directors:
      Dickinson, Miller
      Grading:
      Pass/Fail
      Description:

       

      Objectives:

       

        BIOM 7260 Gastrointestinal
        Credits:
        6
        Directors:
        Dickinson, Miller
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Gastrointestinal provides a fundamental understanding of gastrointestinal basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to gastrointestinal diseases. The six-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the gastrointestinal system including physiology, pharmacology, anatomy, histology, pathology, mucosal immunology, nutrition, biochemistry, microbiology, developmental biology and neuroscience and relating these to pathologies of the gastrointestinal system.  The course provides students with a comprehensive understanding of the diseases and disorders of the gastrointestinal system and its associated accessory organs to: (1) diagnose, effectively treat and manage gastrointestinal-related illnesses, (2) address patient issues and concerns regarding a gastrointestinal complaint and (3) understand the various gastrointestinal-related disorders associated with pediatric and geriatric patients. Clinical sciences and skills include discussion of the common causes of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders, collecting a relevant history based on an abdominal complaint and the appropriate evaluation and treatment of patients with common gastrointestinal abnormalities. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

        Objectives:
        • Explain the neurological and endocrine control of GI function.
        • List and describe the mechanism of action of drugs to alter GI function.
        • Describe the pathogenesis of the major viral, bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases of the GI system.
        • Describe the normal embryonic development and congenital malformations of the GI tract, and the repair, regeneration and changes to the GI tract throughout life.
        • Describe the synthetic and metabolic functions of hepatocytes, and the pathophysiology of metabolic liver disease.
        • Describe the common vitamin deficiencies and toxicities, and match common manifestations with vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
        • Describe the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients, how nutritional status is assessed, and describe protein-calorie malnutrition.
        • Explain the pathophysiology and chemotherapeutic treatment of neoplastic diseases of the GI tract and describe the genetic susceptibility to neoplasms of the GI tract and accessory organs, including benign and malignant diseases.
        • Explain the pathophysiology of pancreatic disease, list the causes for pancreatitis and describe pancreatic replacement therapy and treatment of pancreatitis.
        • Explain the pathophysiology of the autoimmune diseases of the GI system, including the pathophysiology, genetics and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
        • Describe the composition of the normal flora of the GI tract and explain the use of probiotics, prebiotics and fecal transplantation.
        • Describe infectious, inflammatory and immunologic disorders of the GI tract (including causes and treatment of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis), the GI defense mechanisms against ulceration, infection and neoplasms and explain how defects in this system contribute to disease.
        • Describe the pattern approach to abdominal radiography.
        • Explain the link between oral health and systemic disease.
        • Describe differences between fluid replacement in children and adults.
        • Describe the mechanism of action of antibiotics and vaccines to treat and prevent infectious and non-infectious causes of diarrhea.
        • Describe the causes, diagnosis and treatment of intestinal bleeding, and the pathophysiology of the vascular disorders of the intestinal tract.
        • Describe common traumatic injuries and causes and treatments for mechanical disorders of GI tract.
        • Discuss psychosocial factors caused by GI disorders.
        BIOM 7260 Endocrinology, Reproduction, and Multisystem Disorders
        Credits:
        7
        Directors:
        Keator, Draznin, Rebar
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Endocrinology and Reproduction provides a fundamental understanding of classic endocrinology, followed by the basic principles and pathologies specific to men and women, including the complexities of pregnancy. Clinical content is woven throughout the course to reinforce the basic science concepts as they relate to clinical application(s), and at the end of each week a highly integrated clinical case is presented in team-based learning format. The course is subdivided into two major sections. The first half of the course concentrates on classic endocrinology and includes the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid function, calcium-phosphate homeostasis, and the adrenal gland. The second half focuses on the gender-specific differences and/or similarities between the reproductive systems of men and women. Multiple events illustrate the ‘grey areas’ of reproductive health to highlight the ethical, societal and political challenges evident in this area of medicine. The course concludes with the topic of human sexuality, including interactive discussions about the societal and ethical responsibilities (and challenges) that the modern clinician may face when treating members of the straight and LGBT communities.

        Objectives:
        • Describe the normal and abnormal embryological development of the endocrine and reproductive organ systems, including the role of environmental influences on development (e.g. Barker Hypothesis).
        • Identify gross anatomic structures, composition and function of the endocrine and reproductive organs.
        • Identify microscopic structures, composition and function of the endocrine and reproductive organs.
        • Identify gross and microscopic pathologies of the endocrine and reproductive organs.
        • Describe the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the endocrine system.
        • Describe the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the male reproductive system.
        • Describe the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the female reproductive system.
        • Describe the expected temporal-spatial changes in the mother, placenta and fetus during pregnancy, parturition and the postpartum periods.
        • List and identify maternal, placental and fetal pathologies and pathophysiologies that develop during pregnancy, occur during parturition, and develop and/or present in the postpartum.
        • Differentiate benign abnormalities from malignant carcinomas of the reproductive system, especially cancers of the breast, cervix, endometrium, ovary and prostate.
        • Identify and describe the diagnostic laboratory methods unique to assess normal and abnormal function of the endocrine and reproductive systems.
        • Identify, describe and differentiate the pharmacotherapies, including the most common agents and their mechanisms of action, that are used as first-line treatment for the most common endocrine and reproductive disorders.
        • Identify and differentiate the types of pain, and associated pain management strategies, as related to the endocrine and reproductive systems.
        • Demonstrate competence in taking an age and gender appropriate medical history, and performing a physical examination of the endocrine and reproductive systems.
        • Appreciate and describe the complexities of human sexuality, including the role(s) of the healthcare professional team for the ‘straight’ and LGBT communities.
        • Describe the educational background, responsibilities, and professional roles of the healthcare team members that support endocrine and reproductive care.
        • Correlate the theory and concepts of the endocrine and reproductive systems with real world clinical applications and settings.
        BIOM 7270 Endocrinology and Reproduction
        Credits:
        6
        Directors:
        Keator, Draznin, Rebar
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Endocrinology and Reproduction provides a fundamental understanding of classic endocrinology, followed by the basic principles and pathologies specific to men and women, including the complexities of pregnancy. Clinical content is woven throughout the course to reinforce the basic science concepts as they relate to clinical application(s), and at the end of each week a highly integrated clinical case is presented in team-based learning format. The course is subdivided into two major sections. The first half of the course concentrates on classic endocrinology and includes the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid function, calcium-phosphate homeostasis, and the adrenal gland. The second half focuses on the gender-specific differences and/or similarities between the reproductive systems of men and women. Multiple events illustrate the ‘grey areas’ of reproductive health to highlight the ethical, societal and political challenges evident in this area of medicine. The course concludes with the topic of human sexuality, including interactive discussions about the societal and ethical responsibilities (and challenges) that the modern clinician may face when treating members of the straight and LGBT communities.

        Objectives:
        • Describe the normal and abnormal embryological development of the endocrine and reproductive organ systems, including the role of environmental influences on development (e.g. Barker Hypothesis).
        • Identify gross anatomic structures, composition and function of the endocrine and reproductive organs.
        • Identify microscopic structures, composition and function of the endocrine and reproductive organs.
        • Identify gross and microscopic pathologies of the endocrine and reproductive organs.
        • Describe the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the endocrine system.
        • Describe the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the male reproductive system.
        • Describe the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the female reproductive system.
        • Describe the expected temporal-spatial changes in the mother, placenta and fetus during pregnancy, parturition and the postpartum periods.
        • List and identify maternal, placental and fetal pathologies and pathophysiologies that develop during pregnancy, occur during parturition, and develop and/or present in the postpartum.
        • Differentiate benign abnormalities from malignant carcinomas of the reproductive system, especially cancers of the breast, cervix, endometrium, ovary and prostate.
        • Identify and describe the diagnostic laboratory methods unique to assess normal and abnormal function of the endocrine and reproductive systems.
        • Identify, describe and differentiate the pharmacotherapies, including the most common agents and their mechanisms of action, that are used as first-line treatment for the most common endocrine and reproductive disorders.
        • Identify and differentiate the types of pain, and associated pain management strategies, as related to the endocrine and reproductive systems.
        • Demonstrate competence in taking an age and gender appropriate medical history, and performing a physical examination of the endocrine and reproductive systems.
        • Appreciate and describe the complexities of human sexuality, including the role(s) of the healthcare professional team for the ‘straight’ and LGBT communities.
        • Describe the educational background, responsibilities, and professional roles of the healthcare team members that support endocrine and reproductive care.
        • Correlate the theory and concepts of the endocrine and reproductive systems with real world clinical applications and settings.
        BIOM 7270 Behavioral Medicine
        Credits:
        4
        Directors:
        Ten Eyck, Ramesh
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Behavioral Medicine extends and deepens the understanding of neurological basic science principles provided in Neurology I. The four-week course covers human development as it relates to normal and abnormal intellectual development and psychological well-being, and explores the biopsychosocial model, including the ability to describe and discuss the mechanisms, clinical presentation, and treatment of common psychiatric disorders (e.g., anxiety, mood disorders, substance abuse, psychoses, compulsive disorders, and personality disorders). In conjunction with the Profession of Medicine course, students develop familiarity with the foundations of effective mental status- and psychiatric examinations, as well as psychological and neuropsychological evaluations. The course covers the indications and pharmacological profiles of medications that are commonly used to treat psychiatric disorders, introduces nonpharmacological treatments for psychiatric disorders, and introduces students to the roles and importance of multi-disciplinary teams in neurological and psychiatric rehabilitation. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

        Objectives:
        • Describe and discuss the biopsychosocial model, its application to the study and practice of psychiatry, and its specific benefits and limitations.
        • Describe, discuss and demonstrate understanding of the bases and elements of effective psychological- and neuropsychological evaluations and of the psychiatric examination.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of mood disorders and relate each to current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders and relate each to current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of substance use disorders and addiction in the context of current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms, including reward pathways and hypothesized roles of neurochemical and structural plasticity.
        • Describe and discuss normal psychological development through childhood, adolescence and adulthood and how that development affects learning and the clinical assessment of intellectual ability.
        • Describe and discuss the clinical presentations, etiology, treatment, and current mechanistic models of autism spectrum disorders and intellectual developmental disorders.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of attention deficit disorders and learning disabilities in the context of current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
        • Describe, diagram and discuss current theoretical and experimental models of learning and memory and of executive function.
        • Describe and discuss models of consciousness as they apply to medical practice in psychiatry and neurology.
        • Compare and contrast delirium, psychoses, and other altered states of consciousness with respect to clinical presentation, etiology, neurobiological mechanisms, and treatment.
        • Describe and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of somatoform disorders in the context of current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
        • Describe and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of personality disorders in the context of current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
        • Identify the major classes of psychopharmacological drugs, their mechanisms of action, their indications, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties, and their primary side effects and contraindications.
        • Describe and discuss the roles of non-pharmacological therapies in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and the roles of multi-disciplinary teams in neurological and psychiatric rehabilitation.
        • Compare and contrast the clinical disciplines and practice of neurology, psychiatry, behavioral neurology, and neuropsychiatry.
        BIOM 7280 Nervous System I
        Credits:
        5
        Directors:
        Riddle, Ten Eyck
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Nervous System I provides a fundamental understanding of neurological basic science principles and introduction to the application of these principles to diagnosing and treating neurological diseases. The five-week course covers normal features and processes of the nervous system, including embryology, anatomy, physiology, microbiology, and immunology, and relates these to pathologies of the nervous system. The course explores the organization, development, and physiology of the human central nervous system in relation to the essential principles of neurological function. This exploration extends from the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuronal signaling to the organization and function of sensory and motor systems and of higher order, integrative systems. The course provides an understanding of the neural and vascular anatomy of the human brain and spinal cord that is sufficient for localizing lesions within the central nervous system and that supports understanding and performing an effective neurological examination. The course equips students to interpret impairments of sensation, motor function, and cognition that accompany neurological injury and disease, as well as to develop and test mechanistic hypotheses to explain clinical signs and symptoms. The course provides an introduction to pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for neurological disorders, as well as to basic principles of neuropathology and neuroradiology. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

        Objectives:
        • Identify in gross- and histological specimens and in appropriate radiological images key features of: i) the basic organization of the nervous system, ii) the surface anatomy and vasculature of the brain and spinal cord, and iii) the organization of sensory and motor tracts in the brain and spinal cord.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the fundamental mechanisms of neuronal excitability, signal generation and propagation, and synaptic transmission, as well as mechanisms of signal integration and neural plasticity.
        • Identify common disorders of neuronal excitability, their clinical presentations, and their treatments.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the roles of glial cells in the central- and peripheral nervous systems; identify clinical signs and symptoms and discuss neurological tests associated with disorders of myelinating cells.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss key principles of the metabolic support of neural function, the organization of the neural microvasculature, and the structures and mechanisms that control movement of nutrients and other materials into and out of the central nervous system.
        • Describe the mechanisms, clinical presentations, and treatment of stroke and other common neurovascular disorders.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss key events and regulatory processes involved in building the nervous system during embryonic development and in early postnatal life.
        • Identify the most common disorders of neural development, their etiology, their clinical presentation, and their prognosis.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the overall organization and function of the sensory systems that determine our perception of the world and our relationship to it: somatic sensory systems and the proprioceptive, visual, auditory, vestibular, and chemical senses.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the histopathological and pathophysiological changes underlying common causes of blindness, deafness, pain, and dysfunctions of balance.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the organization and function of the brain and spinal mechanisms that govern movement of the body and its parts.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the histopathological and pathophysiological changes underlying common causes of hypokinesia, hyperkinesia, and uncoordinated movement; describe tests commonly used to evaluate movement disorders and the mechanisms of action of common pharmacological agents used to treat them.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the organization of the autonomic nervous system, identify common causes and effects of autonomic dysfunction, and explain the mechanisms of action of pharmacological agents used to treat autonomic dysfunction.
        • Identify the primary regions and mechanisms in the brain that regulate primary integrative functions, including neuroendocrine function, neuroimmune function, emotional regulation, autonomic control, and sleep/wakefulness.
        • Describe the clinical presentation and treatment of disorders of these integrative functions.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the organization of association systems of the cerebral hemispheres and the structure and function of cortical networks that control consciousness and that integrate perception, memory, and emotion in organizing behavior and planning.
        • Recognize the clinical indications of altered mental status and identify common causes of acute and chronic changes in mental status.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss aging-related changes in brain structure and neurological function and the criteria that distinguish normal from pathological aging.
        • Describe neurobiological mechanisms underlying normal- and pathological changes in cognitive- and other neural function that are associated with aging.
        • Recognize clinical presentations and describe pathophysiological changes associated with infectious and neoplastic disorders of the nervous system.
        • Identify the major classes of neuropharmacological agents, their mechanisms of action, their indications, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties, and their primary side effects and contraindications.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the structural and functional principles underlying execution and interpretation of neurological and neurocognitive examinations in the clinic.
        BIOM 7282 Nervous System II
        Credits:
        4
        Directors:
        Riddle, Dunstone
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Nervous System II extends and deepens the understanding of neurological basic science principles provided in Nervous System I. The four-week course covers human development as it relates to normal and abnormal intellectual development and psychological well-being, and explores the biopsychosocial model, including the ability to describe and discuss the mechanisms, clinical presentation, and treatment of common psychiatric disorders (e.g., anxiety, mood disorders, substance abuse, psychoses, compulsive disorders, and personality disorders). In conjunction with the Profession of Medicine course, students develop familiarity with the foundations of effective mental status- and psychiatric examinations, as well as psychological and neuropsychological evaluations. The course covers the indications and pharmacological profiles of medications that are commonly used to treat psychiatric disorders, introduces nonpharmacological treatments for psychiatric disorders, and introduces students to the roles and importance of multi-disciplinary teams in neurological and psychiatric rehabilitation. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

        Objectives:
        • Describe and discuss the biopsychosocial model, its application to the study and practice of psychiatry, and its specific benefits and limitations.
        • Describe, discuss and demonstrate understanding of the bases and elements of effective psychological- and neuropsychological evaluations and of the psychiatric examination.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of mood disorders and relate each to current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders and relate each to current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of substance use disorders and addiction in the context of current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms, including reward pathways and hypothesized roles of neurochemical and structural plasticity.
        • Describe and discuss normal psychological development through childhood, adolescence and adulthood and how that development affects learning and the clinical assessment of intellectual ability.
        • Describe and discuss the clinical presentations, etiology, treatment, and current mechanistic models of autism spectrum disorders and intellectual developmental disorders.
        • Describe, diagram, and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of attention deficit disorders and learning disabilities in the context of current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
        • Describe, diagram and discuss current theoretical and experimental models of learning and memory and of executive function.
        • Describe and discuss models of consciousness as they apply to medical practice in psychiatry and neurology.
        • Compare and contrast delirium, psychoses, and other altered states of consciousness with respect to clinical presentation, etiology, neurobiological mechanisms, and treatment.
        • Describe and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of somatoform disorders in the context of current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
        • Describe and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of personality disorders in the context of current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
        • Identify the major classes of psychopharmacological drugs, their mechanisms of action, their indications, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties, and their primary side effects and contraindications.
        • Describe and discuss the roles of non-pharmacological therapies in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and the roles of multi-disciplinary teams in neurological and psychiatric rehabilitation.
        • Compare and contrast the clinical disciplines and practice of neurology, psychiatry, behavioral neurology, and neuropsychiatry.
        BIOM 7510 Selected Topics in Biomedical Sciences - Section 1 Advanced Anatomy Prosection
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Woodcock
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will perform an advanced prosection of a specific body region (e.g., Head and Neck, Thorax, Abdomen, Spinal Cord, Upper Limb, Lower Limb, or Pelvis). In addition, students will annotate at least two articles with reference to: standard bibliographic reference and a concise synthesis of the article. Students are evaluated according to their ability to summarize and articulate how each publication relates to their prosection and integrate it with medical practice. Upon completion of the prosection, students will present their project to an instructor and other students enrolled in the elective. The final presentation will

        include a description of the anatomy of the prosected region, any pathologies that were discovered during the process and how they may have presented in life, and how the prosection relates to the literature review.

        Total time expectation is 20-30 hours per week.

        Objectives:
        • Be able to demonstrate and describe the structures and relationships of specific body regions
        • Be able to search for and find appropriate anatomical literature
        • Be able to integrate literature review and laboratory experience
        BIOM 9210 Biomedical Sciences Research
        Credits:
        4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        BIOM 9220 Selected Topics in Biomedical Sciences
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        CLIN 7420 Introductory Clinical Experiences 3
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Satonik
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Introductory Clinical Experiences 1-4 Description:

        The Introductory Clinical Experience (ICE) Course exposes MS1 and MS2 students to a wide array of clinical activities.  Beginning early in Year 1 and continuing through the end of Year 2, students spend 3-4 hours during each ICE week participating in a clinically related activity.  ICE is organized into four-week blocks; four in Year 1 and six in Year 2.  Within each four-week ICE block, students will rotate among four core components: Longitudinal Clinical Experience, Primary Care, Clinical Rotations, and Inter Professional Experience (see Table below).  ICE is intended to provide early clinical exposure and, whenever possible, to provide real world clinical correlations to topics being covered in the Foundations of Medicine courses.

        Longitudinal Clinical Experience Description (LCE):

        The Longitudinal Clinical Experiences (LCE) component of ICE provides students with exposure to a model geriatric care program and affords students to work with the same geriatric patients over an extended period of time during their first two years.  LCE is offered at CentraCare, a PACE (Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly) organization. The mission of CentraCare is to provide comprehensive care for frail older adults. The care provided at CentraCare is centered on the belief that interdisciplinary care is the best type of care for this patient population, and that frail older adults are best served in their own home in the community as they age.

        Students will participate in LCE during one of every 4 ICE weeks at the CentraCare location in either Kalamazoo or Battle Creek. In each session, students will observe the interdisciplinary approach to care for this patient population and interact with the interdisciplinary team members as they care for CentraCare patients. The ICE LCE at CentraCare will enable students to gain insight into the disciplines crucial to providing comprehensive care for frail older adults and to maintaining them safely in the community. In addition, the LCE is structured in a longitudinal format with continuity of relationships with the interdisciplinary team members and with specific participants with whom students will be paired. During the systems-based Foundations of Medicine Courses, each LCE session will include an educational activity that will address geriatric considers related to the system being studied.

        Primary Care Experience Description (PC):

        The Primary Care component of ICE occurs once during each four-week ICE block. Two half-day sessions in Family Medicine and two in Pediatrics are offered in Year 1 and six sessions in Internal Medicine are offered in Year 2. During Primary Care students will become increasingly comfortable seeing patients by themselves.  Resident and attending physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  To the extent possible, students will work with the same clinical preceptors.  Students are expected to encounter a variety of primary care patients.  Clinical preceptors will be made aware of the Foundations of Medicine course topics being covered during each four-week ICE block.  Whenever practical, preceptors will attempt to correlate these topics with actual patient encounters

        Community Care Experience Description:

        During Year 1, students will participate in a 3-4-hour Community Care Clinical Rotation.  During Year 1 students will spend one 4-hour session with home healthcare nurses.  This experience provides students with insight into the important role homecare nurses play in the healthcare system. Optionally, a student may schedule either a fire department medical first responder unit visit, a session with a paramedic ambulance, or both.  These sessions are intended to allow students to perform basic emergency medical assessment and treatment skills that they acquired during the medical first responder course. All of these experiences afford students the unique opportunity to gain insight into diverse home environments that are representative of those of their future patients. 

        Emergency Care Experience Description:

        The Acute Care Clinical Rotations take place in hospital emergency departments during five ICE blocks throughout Year 2.  While students will not be conducting the initial assessment, they will be able to assess patients who present with various acute clinical conditions.  It is anticipated that during each 4-hour session there will likely be at least one patient with a clinical condition that correlates to the student’s current Foundation of Medicine topic.  Resident and attending emergency physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  In addition to assessing patients, students will also have opportunities to perform or assist in a variety of common emergency procedures.

        Objectives:
        • Describe different interventions used at PACE to improve quality of life of older people.
        • Explain the three tenets of the framework for comprehensive and patient-centered geriatric health care.
        • Discuss the concept of the all-inclusive care, business model of the PACE program.
        • Describe effective delivery of geriatric health care in an interdisciplinary team setting.
        • Demonstrate empathy when interacting with an older adult.
        • Demonstrate effective communication when interacting with an older adult.
        • Describe how an older adult’s healthcare needs impact the approach to his/her care in the PACE program.
        • Demonstrate the ability to review, with a geriatric patient, their medication list to identify potential medication interactions and/or special considerations for geriatric patients.

        Primary Care Objectives: Upon completion of PC, each student will be able to:

        1. Discuss the titles, roles and scope of work for the common positions present in a primary care practice (receptionists, schedulers, billers, nurses, medical assistants, attending physicians, resident physicians).
        2. Describe concepts of primary care pediatric and adult preventive health care.
        3. Identify barriers and enablers to effective patient-physician communication.
        4. Describe the concept of the “patient-centered medical home”.
        5. Demonstrate the ability to perform an encounter-focused H&P for patients at the internal medicine practice

        Community Care Objectives:

        • Describe professional attributes of homecare nurses and EMS personnel.
        • Describe various types of home environments and discuss how the environment may impact a person’s health.
        • Describe the roles homecare and EMS play within the broader healthcare system.
        • Demonstrate the ability to accurately measure vital signs.
        • Describe basic components of a home safety assessment (homecare only).
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform any skill considered to be within the scope of practice of a medical first responder (EMS rotations only).
        • List at least 15 medications carried on a paramedic unit and their basic emergency indications (EMS rotations only).

        Emergency Care Objectives:

        • Assist emergency physicians or other clinicians in the care of emergency patients.
        • Describe the initial presenting signs and symptoms of encountered/common emergency department complaints.
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform a history and physical examination on an emergency department patient with an acute (or acute on chronic) condition.
        • Demonstrate the ability to discuss/interpret basic laboratory, radiographic, and EKG studies (previously covered in Foundations of Medicine course material).
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform skills learned during the Clinical Skills and Medical First Responder Courses.
        • Describe the characteristics of a team-approach to managing a seriously ill or injured emergency patient.
        • Describe how past medical records contribute to the care of the emergency patient.
        • Discuss clinical factors used to determine the need for hospitalization of an emergency patient.
        • Describe the importance of post-discharge primary or specialty care follow-up of emergency patients.
        CLIN 7410 Introductory Clinical Experiences 1
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Satonik
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Introductory Clinical Experiences 1-4 Description:

        The Introductory Clinical Experience (ICE) Course exposes MS1 and MS2 students to a wide array of clinical activities.  Beginning early in Year 1 and continuing through the end of Year 2, students spend 3-4 hours during each ICE week participating in a clinically related activity.  ICE is organized into four-week blocks; four in Year 1 and six in Year 2.  Within each four-week ICE block, students will rotate among four core components: Longitudinal Clinical Experience, Primary Care, Clinical Rotations, and Inter Professional Experience (see Table below).  ICE is intended to provide early clinical exposure and, whenever possible, to provide real world clinical correlations to topics being covered in the Foundations of Medicine courses.

        Longitudinal Clinical Experience Description (LCE):

        The Longitudinal Clinical Experiences (LCE) component of ICE provides students with exposure to a model geriatric care program and affords students to work with the same geriatric patients over an extended period of time during their first two years.  LCE is offered at CentraCare, a PACE (Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly) organization. The mission of CentraCare is to provide comprehensive care for frail older adults. The care provided at CentraCare is centered on the belief that interdisciplinary care is the best type of care for this patient population, and that frail older adults are best served in their own home in the community as they age.

        Students will participate in LCE during one of every 4 ICE weeks at the CentraCare location in either Kalamazoo or Battle Creek. In each session, students will observe the interdisciplinary approach to care for this patient population and interact with the interdisciplinary team members as they care for CentraCare patients. The ICE LCE at CentraCare will enable students to gain insight into the disciplines crucial to providing comprehensive care for frail older adults and to maintaining them safely in the community. In addition, the LCE is structured in a longitudinal format with continuity of relationships with the interdisciplinary team members and with specific participants with whom students will be paired. During the systems-based Foundations of Medicine Courses, each LCE session will include an educational activity that will address geriatric considers related to the system being studied.

        Primary Care Experience Description (PC):

        The Primary Care component of ICE occurs once during each four-week ICE block. Two half-day sessions in Family Medicine and two in Pediatrics are offered in Year 1 and six sessions in Internal Medicine are offered in Year 2. During Primary Care students will become increasingly comfortable seeing patients by themselves.  Resident and attending physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  To the extent possible, students will work with the same clinical preceptors.  Students are expected to encounter a variety of primary care patients.  Clinical preceptors will be made aware of the Foundations of Medicine course topics being covered during each four-week ICE block.  Whenever practical, preceptors will attempt to correlate these topics with actual patient encounters

        Community Care Experience Description:

        During Year 1, students will participate in a 3-4-hour Community Care Clinical Rotation.  During Year 1 students will spend one 4-hour session with home healthcare nurses.  This experience provides students with insight into the important role homecare nurses play in the healthcare system. Optionally, a student may schedule either a fire department medical first responder unit visit, a session with a paramedic ambulance, or both.  These sessions are intended to allow students to perform basic emergency medical assessment and treatment skills that they acquired during the medical first responder course. All of these experiences afford students the unique opportunity to gain insight into diverse home environments that are representative of those of their future patients. 

        Emergency Care Experience Description:

        The Acute Care Clinical Rotations take place in hospital emergency departments during five ICE blocks throughout Year 2.  While students will not be conducting the initial assessment, they will be able to assess patients who present with various acute clinical conditions.  It is anticipated that during each 4-hour session there will likely be at least one patient with a clinical condition that correlates to the student’s current Foundation of Medicine topic.  Resident and attending emergency physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  In addition to assessing patients, students will also have opportunities to perform or assist in a variety of common emergency procedures.

        Objectives:
        • Describe different interventions used at PACE to improve quality of life of older people.
        • Explain the three tenets of the framework for comprehensive and patient-centered geriatric health care.
        • Discuss the concept of the all-inclusive care, business model of the PACE program.
        • Describe effective delivery of geriatric health care in an interdisciplinary team setting.
        • Demonstrate empathy when interacting with an older adult.
        • Demonstrate effective communication when interacting with an older adult.
        • Describe how an older adult’s healthcare needs impact the approach to his/her care in the PACE program.
        • Demonstrate the ability to review, with a geriatric patient, their medication list to identify potential medication interactions and/or special considerations for geriatric patients.

        Primary Care Objectives: Upon completion of PC, each student will be able to:

        1. Discuss the titles, roles and scope of work for the common positions present in a primary care practice (receptionists, schedulers, billers, nurses, medical assistants, attending physicians, resident physicians).
        2. Describe concepts of primary care pediatric and adult preventive health care.
        3. Identify barriers and enablers to effective patient-physician communication.
        4. Describe the concept of the “patient-centered medical home”.
        5. Demonstrate the ability to perform an encounter-focused H&P for patients at the internal medicine practice

        Community Care Objectives:

        • Describe professional attributes of homecare nurses and EMS personnel.
        • Describe various types of home environments and discuss how the environment may impact a person’s health.
        • Describe the roles homecare and EMS play within the broader healthcare system.
        • Demonstrate the ability to accurately measure vital signs.
        • Describe basic components of a home safety assessment (homecare only).
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform any skill considered to be within the scope of practice of a medical first responder (EMS rotations only).
        • List at least 15 medications carried on a paramedic unit and their basic emergency indications (EMS rotations only).

        Emergency Care Objectives:

        • Assist emergency physicians or other clinicians in the care of emergency patients.
        • Describe the initial presenting signs and symptoms of encountered/common emergency department complaints.
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform a history and physical examination on an emergency department patient with an acute (or acute on chronic) condition.
        • Demonstrate the ability to discuss/interpret basic laboratory, radiographic, and EKG studies (previously covered in Foundations of Medicine course material).
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform skills learned during the Clinical Skills and Medical First Responder Courses.
        • Describe the characteristics of a team-approach to managing a seriously ill or injured emergency patient.
        • Describe how past medical records contribute to the care of the emergency patient.
        • Discuss clinical factors used to determine the need for hospitalization of an emergency patient.
        • Describe the importance of post-discharge primary or specialty care follow-up of emergency patients.
        CLIN 7410 Introductory Clinical Experiences 1
        Credits:
        2
        Directors:
        Satonik
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Introductory Clinical Experiences 1-4 Description:

        The Introductory Clinical Experience (ICE) Course exposes MS1 and MS2 students to a wide array of clinical activities.  Beginning early in Year 1 and continuing through the end of Year 2, students spend 3-4 hours during each ICE week participating in a clinically related activity.  ICE is organized into four-week blocks; four in Year 1 and six in Year 2.  Within each four-week ICE block, students will rotate among four core components: Longitudinal Clinical Experience, Primary Care, Clinical Rotations, and Inter Professional Experience (see Table below).  ICE is intended to provide early clinical exposure and, whenever possible, to provide real world clinical correlations to topics being covered in the Foundations of Medicine courses.

        Longitudinal Clinical Experience Description (LCE):

        The Longitudinal Clinical Experiences (LCE) component of ICE provides students with exposure to a model geriatric care program and affords students to work with the same geriatric patients over an extended period of time during their first two years.  LCE is offered at CentraCare, a PACE (Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly) organization. The mission of CentraCare is to provide comprehensive care for frail older adults. The care provided at CentraCare is centered on the belief that interdisciplinary care is the best type of care for this patient population, and that frail older adults are best served in their own home in the community as they age.

        Students will participate in LCE during one of every 4 ICE weeks at the CentraCare location in either Kalamazoo or Battle Creek. In each session, students will observe the interdisciplinary approach to care for this patient population and interact with the interdisciplinary team members as they care for CentraCare patients. The ICE LCE at CentraCare will enable students to gain insight into the disciplines crucial to providing comprehensive care for frail older adults and to maintaining them safely in the community. In addition, the LCE is structured in a longitudinal format with continuity of relationships with the interdisciplinary team members and with specific participants with whom students will be paired. During the systems-based Foundations of Medicine Courses, each LCE session will include an educational activity that will address geriatric considers related to the system being studied.

        Primary Care Experience Description (PC):

        The Primary Care component of ICE occurs once during each four-week ICE block. Two half-day sessions in Family Medicine and two in Pediatrics are offered in Year 1 and six sessions in Internal Medicine are offered in Year 2. During Primary Care students will become increasingly comfortable seeing patients by themselves.  Resident and attending physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  To the extent possible, students will work with the same clinical preceptors.  Students are expected to encounter a variety of primary care patients.  Clinical preceptors will be made aware of the Foundations of Medicine course topics being covered during each four-week ICE block.  Whenever practical, preceptors will attempt to correlate these topics with actual patient encounters

        Community Care Experience Description:

        During Year 1, students will participate in a 3-4-hour Community Care Clinical Rotation.  During Year 1 students will spend one 4-hour session with home healthcare nurses.  This experience provides students with insight into the important role homecare nurses play in the healthcare system. Optionally, a student may schedule either a fire department medical first responder unit visit, a session with a paramedic ambulance, or both.  These sessions are intended to allow students to perform basic emergency medical assessment and treatment skills that they acquired during the medical first responder course. All of these experiences afford students the unique opportunity to gain insight into diverse home environments that are representative of those of their future patients. 

        Emergency Care Experience Description:

        The Acute Care Clinical Rotations take place in hospital emergency departments during five ICE blocks throughout Year 2.  While students will not be conducting the initial assessment, they will be able to assess patients who present with various acute clinical conditions.  It is anticipated that during each 4-hour session there will likely be at least one patient with a clinical condition that correlates to the student’s current Foundation of Medicine topic.  Resident and attending emergency physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  In addition to assessing patients, students will also have opportunities to perform or assist in a variety of common emergency procedures.

        Objectives:
        • Describe different interventions used at PACE to improve quality of life of older people.
        • Explain the three tenets of the framework for comprehensive and patient-centered geriatric health care.
        • Discuss the concept of the all-inclusive care, business model of the PACE program.
        • Describe effective delivery of geriatric health care in an interdisciplinary team setting.
        • Demonstrate empathy when interacting with an older adult.
        • Demonstrate effective communication when interacting with an older adult.
        • Describe how an older adult’s healthcare needs impact the approach to his/her care in the PACE program.
        • Demonstrate the ability to review, with a geriatric patient, their medication list to identify potential medication interactions and/or special considerations for geriatric patients.

        Primary Care Objectives: Upon completion of PC, each student will be able to:

        1. Discuss the titles, roles and scope of work for the common positions present in a primary care practice (receptionists, schedulers, billers, nurses, medical assistants, attending physicians, resident physicians).
        2. Describe concepts of primary care pediatric and adult preventive health care.
        3. Identify barriers and enablers to effective patient-physician communication.
        4. Describe the concept of the “patient-centered medical home”.
        5. Demonstrate the ability to perform an encounter-focused H&P for patients at the internal medicine practice

        Community Care Objectives:

        • Describe professional attributes of homecare nurses and EMS personnel.
        • Describe various types of home environments and discuss how the environment may impact a person’s health.
        • Describe the roles homecare and EMS play within the broader healthcare system.
        • Demonstrate the ability to accurately measure vital signs.
        • Describe basic components of a home safety assessment (homecare only).
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform any skill considered to be within the scope of practice of a medical first responder (EMS rotations only).
        • List at least 15 medications carried on a paramedic unit and their basic emergency indications (EMS rotations only).

        Emergency Care Objectives:

        • Assist emergency physicians or other clinicians in the care of emergency patients.
        • Describe the initial presenting signs and symptoms of encountered/common emergency department complaints.
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform a history and physical examination on an emergency department patient with an acute (or acute on chronic) condition.
        • Demonstrate the ability to discuss/interpret basic laboratory, radiographic, and EKG studies (previously covered in Foundations of Medicine course material).
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform skills learned during the Clinical Skills and Medical First Responder Courses.
        • Describe the characteristics of a team-approach to managing a seriously ill or injured emergency patient.
        • Describe how past medical records contribute to the care of the emergency patient.
        • Discuss clinical factors used to determine the need for hospitalization of an emergency patient.
        • Describe the importance of post-discharge primary or specialty care follow-up of emergency patients.
        CLIN 7412 Introductory Clinical Experiences 2
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Satonik
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Introductory Clinical Experiences 1-4 Description:

        The Introductory Clinical Experience (ICE) Course exposes MS1 and MS2 students to a wide array of clinical activities.  Beginning early in Year 1 and continuing through the end of Year 2, students spend 3-4 hours during each ICE week participating in a clinically related activity.  ICE is organized into four-week blocks; four in Year 1 and six in Year 2.  Within each four-week ICE block, students will rotate among four core components: Longitudinal Clinical Experience, Primary Care, Clinical Rotations, and Inter Professional Experience (see Table below).  ICE is intended to provide early clinical exposure and, whenever possible, to provide real world clinical correlations to topics being covered in the Foundations of Medicine courses.

        Longitudinal Clinical Experience Description (LCE):

        The Longitudinal Clinical Experiences (LCE) component of ICE provides students with exposure to a model geriatric care program and affords students to work with the same geriatric patients over an extended period of time during their first two years.  LCE is offered at CentraCare, a PACE (Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly) organization. The mission of CentraCare is to provide comprehensive care for frail older adults. The care provided at CentraCare is centered on the belief that interdisciplinary care is the best type of care for this patient population, and that frail older adults are best served in their own home in the community as they age.

        Students will participate in LCE during one of every 4 ICE weeks at the CentraCare location in either Kalamazoo or Battle Creek. In each session, students will observe the interdisciplinary approach to care for this patient population and interact with the interdisciplinary team members as they care for CentraCare patients. The ICE LCE at CentraCare will enable students to gain insight into the disciplines crucial to providing comprehensive care for frail older adults and to maintaining them safely in the community. In addition, the LCE is structured in a longitudinal format with continuity of relationships with the interdisciplinary team members and with specific participants with whom students will be paired. During the systems-based Foundations of Medicine Courses, each LCE session will include an educational activity that will address geriatric considers related to the system being studied.

        Primary Care Experience Description (PC):

        The Primary Care component of ICE occurs once during each four-week ICE block. Two half-day sessions in Family Medicine and two in Pediatrics are offered in Year 1 and six sessions in Internal Medicine are offered in Year 2. During Primary Care students will become increasingly comfortable seeing patients by themselves.  Resident and attending physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  To the extent possible, students will work with the same clinical preceptors.  Students are expected to encounter a variety of primary care patients.  Clinical preceptors will be made aware of the Foundations of Medicine course topics being covered during each four-week ICE block.  Whenever practical, preceptors will attempt to correlate these topics with actual patient encounters

        Community Care Experience Description:

        During Year 1, students will participate in a 3-4-hour Community Care Clinical Rotation.  During Year 1 students will spend one 4-hour session with home healthcare nurses.  This experience provides students with insight into the important role homecare nurses play in the healthcare system. Optionally, a student may schedule either a fire department medical first responder unit visit, a session with a paramedic ambulance, or both.  These sessions are intended to allow students to perform basic emergency medical assessment and treatment skills that they acquired during the medical first responder course. All of these experiences afford students the unique opportunity to gain insight into diverse home environments that are representative of those of their future patients. 

        Emergency Care Experience Description:

        The Acute Care Clinical Rotations take place in hospital emergency departments during five ICE blocks throughout Year 2.  While students will not be conducting the initial assessment, they will be able to assess patients who present with various acute clinical conditions.  It is anticipated that during each 4-hour session there will likely be at least one patient with a clinical condition that correlates to the student’s current Foundation of Medicine topic.  Resident and attending emergency physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  In addition to assessing patients, students will also have opportunities to perform or assist in a variety of common emergency procedures.

        Objectives:
        • Describe different interventions used at PACE to improve quality of life of older people.
        • Explain the three tenets of the framework for comprehensive and patient-centered geriatric health care.
        • Discuss the concept of the all-inclusive care, business model of the PACE program.
        • Describe effective delivery of geriatric health care in an interdisciplinary team setting.
        • Demonstrate empathy when interacting with an older adult.
        • Demonstrate effective communication when interacting with an older adult.
        • Describe how an older adult’s healthcare needs impact the approach to his/her care in the PACE program.
        • Demonstrate the ability to review, with a geriatric patient, their medication list to identify potential medication interactions and/or special considerations for geriatric patients.

        Primary Care Objectives: Upon completion of PC, each student will be able to:

        1. Discuss the titles, roles and scope of work for the common positions present in a primary care practice (receptionists, schedulers, billers, nurses, medical assistants, attending physicians, resident physicians).
        2. Describe concepts of primary care pediatric and adult preventive health care.
        3. Identify barriers and enablers to effective patient-physician communication.
        4. Describe the concept of the “patient-centered medical home”.
        5. Demonstrate the ability to perform an encounter-focused H&P for patients at the internal medicine practice

        Community Care Objectives:

        • Describe professional attributes of homecare nurses and EMS personnel.
        • Describe various types of home environments and discuss how the environment may impact a person’s health.
        • Describe the roles homecare and EMS play within the broader healthcare system.
        • Demonstrate the ability to accurately measure vital signs.
        • Describe basic components of a home safety assessment (homecare only).
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform any skill considered to be within the scope of practice of a medical first responder (EMS rotations only).
        • List at least 15 medications carried on a paramedic unit and their basic emergency indications (EMS rotations only).

        Emergency Care Objectives:

        • Assist emergency physicians or other clinicians in the care of emergency patients.
        • Describe the initial presenting signs and symptoms of encountered/common emergency department complaints.
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform a history and physical examination on an emergency department patient with an acute (or acute on chronic) condition.
        • Demonstrate the ability to discuss/interpret basic laboratory, radiographic, and EKG studies (previously covered in Foundations of Medicine course material).
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform skills learned during the Clinical Skills and Medical First Responder Courses.
        • Describe the characteristics of a team-approach to managing a seriously ill or injured emergency patient.
        • Describe how past medical records contribute to the care of the emergency patient.
        • Discuss clinical factors used to determine the need for hospitalization of an emergency patient.
        • Describe the importance of post-discharge primary or specialty care follow-up of emergency patients.
        CLIN 7422 Introductory Clinical Experiences 4
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Satonik
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Introductory Clinical Experiences 1-4 Description:

        The Introductory Clinical Experience (ICE) Course exposes MS1 and MS2 students to a wide array of clinical activities.  Beginning early in Year 1 and continuing through the end of Year 2, students spend 3-4 hours during each ICE week participating in a clinically related activity.  ICE is organized into four-week blocks; four in Year 1 and six in Year 2.  Within each four-week ICE block, students will rotate among four core components: Longitudinal Clinical Experience, Primary Care, Clinical Rotations, and Inter Professional Experience (see Table below).  ICE is intended to provide early clinical exposure and, whenever possible, to provide real world clinical correlations to topics being covered in the Foundations of Medicine courses.

        Longitudinal Clinical Experience Description (LCE):

        The Longitudinal Clinical Experiences (LCE) component of ICE provides students with exposure to a model geriatric care program and affords students to work with the same geriatric patients over an extended period of time during their first two years.  LCE is offered at CentraCare, a PACE (Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly) organization. The mission of CentraCare is to provide comprehensive care for frail older adults. The care provided at CentraCare is centered on the belief that interdisciplinary care is the best type of care for this patient population, and that frail older adults are best served in their own home in the community as they age.

        Students will participate in LCE during one of every 4 ICE weeks at the CentraCare location in either Kalamazoo or Battle Creek. In each session, students will observe the interdisciplinary approach to care for this patient population and interact with the interdisciplinary team members as they care for CentraCare patients. The ICE LCE at CentraCare will enable students to gain insight into the disciplines crucial to providing comprehensive care for frail older adults and to maintaining them safely in the community. In addition, the LCE is structured in a longitudinal format with continuity of relationships with the interdisciplinary team members and with specific participants with whom students will be paired. During the systems-based Foundations of Medicine Courses, each LCE session will include an educational activity that will address geriatric considers related to the system being studied.

        Primary Care Experience Description (PC):

        The Primary Care component of ICE occurs once during each four-week ICE block. Two half-day sessions in Family Medicine and two in Pediatrics are offered in Year 1 and six sessions in Internal Medicine are offered in Year 2. During Primary Care students will become increasingly comfortable seeing patients by themselves.  Resident and attending physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  To the extent possible, students will work with the same clinical preceptors.  Students are expected to encounter a variety of primary care patients.  Clinical preceptors will be made aware of the Foundations of Medicine course topics being covered during each four-week ICE block.  Whenever practical, preceptors will attempt to correlate these topics with actual patient encounters

        Community Care Experience Description:

        During Year 1, students will participate in a 3-4-hour Community Care Clinical Rotation.  During Year 1 students will spend one 4-hour session with home healthcare nurses.  This experience provides students with insight into the important role homecare nurses play in the healthcare system. Optionally, a student may schedule either a fire department medical first responder unit visit, a session with a paramedic ambulance, or both.  These sessions are intended to allow students to perform basic emergency medical assessment and treatment skills that they acquired during the medical first responder course. All of these experiences afford students the unique opportunity to gain insight into diverse home environments that are representative of those of their future patients. 

        Emergency Care Experience Description:

        The Acute Care Clinical Rotations take place in hospital emergency departments during five ICE blocks throughout Year 2.  While students will not be conducting the initial assessment, they will be able to assess patients who present with various acute clinical conditions.  It is anticipated that during each 4-hour session there will likely be at least one patient with a clinical condition that correlates to the student’s current Foundation of Medicine topic.  Resident and attending emergency physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  In addition to assessing patients, students will also have opportunities to perform or assist in a variety of common emergency procedures.

        Objectives:
        • Describe different interventions used at PACE to improve quality of life of older people.
        • Explain the three tenets of the framework for comprehensive and patient-centered geriatric health care.
        • Discuss the concept of the all-inclusive care, business model of the PACE program.
        • Describe effective delivery of geriatric health care in an interdisciplinary team setting.
        • Demonstrate empathy when interacting with an older adult.
        • Demonstrate effective communication when interacting with an older adult.
        • Describe how an older adult’s healthcare needs impact the approach to his/her care in the PACE program.
        • Demonstrate the ability to review, with a geriatric patient, their medication list to identify potential medication interactions and/or special considerations for geriatric patients.

        Primary Care Objectives: Upon completion of PC, each student will be able to:

        1. Discuss the titles, roles and scope of work for the common positions present in a primary care practice (receptionists, schedulers, billers, nurses, medical assistants, attending physicians, resident physicians).
        2. Describe concepts of primary care pediatric and adult preventive health care.
        3. Identify barriers and enablers to effective patient-physician communication.
        4. Describe the concept of the “patient-centered medical home”.
        5. Demonstrate the ability to perform an encounter-focused H&P for patients at the internal medicine practice

        Community Care Objectives:

        • Describe professional attributes of homecare nurses and EMS personnel.
        • Describe various types of home environments and discuss how the environment may impact a person’s health.
        • Describe the roles homecare and EMS play within the broader healthcare system.
        • Demonstrate the ability to accurately measure vital signs.
        • Describe basic components of a home safety assessment (homecare only).
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform any skill considered to be within the scope of practice of a medical first responder (EMS rotations only).
        • List at least 15 medications carried on a paramedic unit and their basic emergency indications (EMS rotations only).

        Emergency Care Objectives:

        • Assist emergency physicians or other clinicians in the care of emergency patients.
        • Describe the initial presenting signs and symptoms of encountered/common emergency department complaints.
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform a history and physical examination on an emergency department patient with an acute (or acute on chronic) condition.
        • Demonstrate the ability to discuss/interpret basic laboratory, radiographic, and EKG studies (previously covered in Foundations of Medicine course material).
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform skills learned during the Clinical Skills and Medical First Responder Courses.
        • Describe the characteristics of a team-approach to managing a seriously ill or injured emergency patient.
        • Describe how past medical records contribute to the care of the emergency patient.
        • Discuss clinical factors used to determine the need for hospitalization of an emergency patient.
        • Describe the importance of post-discharge primary or specialty care follow-up of emergency patients.
        CLIN 7510 Selected Topics in Clinical Medicine
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        EMER 7510 Selected Topics in Emergency Medicine - Section 1 Emergency Medicine
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Kothari
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work alongside emergency medicine faculty and senior level residents caring for patients in a high volume emergency department. Students will work three, eight hour ED shifts, and will also attend weekly emergency medicine conferences. Total time expectations will be 25-30 hours per week.

        Objectives:
        • Develop a basic differential of common emergent causes of:
        • Abdominal pain
        • Chest pain
        • Headache
        • Respiratory Distress
        EMER 7510 Selected Topics in Emergency Medicine - Section 2 Emergency Medical Services
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Mastenbrook
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will gain familiarity with a high performance prehospital EMS system. Along with EMS faculty and staff, they will attend various standing administrative meetings, and weekly emergency medicine grand rounds/simulation. They will complete two 8-hour ride along shifts with paramedics and one 8-hour ride along shift with medical first responder firefighters. Total time expectations will be approximately 25-30 hours per week.

        Not offered July-September

        Objectives:
        • Understand the EMS system function
        • Provide examples of pre-hospital medical direction (online and offline) and physician oversight
        • *Participation in the provision of pre-hospital care
        • Define the role of members of the prehospital health team
        • Experience interactions with members of the prehospital health team
        EMER 7510 Selected Topics in Emergency Medicine - Section 3 Medical Response Unit
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Mastenbrook
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Alongside senior emergency medicine resident physicians, students will ride along on WMed’s Medical Response Unit, a specially-outfitted EMS response vehicle equipped with emergency response capabilities, medical equipment and tools not available on standard ambulances. Students will respond to major high-acuity EMS calls such as multi-casualty incidents, cardiac arrests, multi-alarm fires and major traumas. Students will attend weekly emergency medicine grand rounds/simulation, and will work three 8-hour shifts for a total time expectation of approximately 25-30 hours per week.

        Not offered July-September

        Objectives:
        • Understand the EMS system function
        • Provide examples of pre-hospital medical direction (online and offline) and physician oversight
        • Participation in the provision of pre-hospital care
        • Define the role of members of the prehospital health team
        • Experience interactions with members of the prehospital health team
        EMER 7510 Selected Topics in Emergency Medicine - Section 4 Emergency Medicine Research
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Overton
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students with ongoing involvement in select projects may receive permission to devote a week of dedicated time to participate in research projects within the Department of Emergency Medicine. Individual faculty members will sponsor and supervise research projects jointly developed by the individual student and the faculty member. Maximum time expectation will be 25-30 hours.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this elective, students will be able to:

        • Provide a guided research experience with in the Department of Emergency Medicine
        • Become acquainted with different categories of IRB proposals
        • Acquire an appreciation for the value of a well-developed research project
        • Perform a comprehensive literature search, including online medical literature retrieval and the use the internet/medical search tools/websites
        • Advance the project toward a final goal and potential publication
        • Understand the required steps involved with the submission and presentation at a regional or national conference
        • Further objectives will be customized to the individual project
        EMER 9210 Emergency Medicine Research
        Credits:
        4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Overton
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This elective focuses on the planning, development, and/or execution of a research project as a means of understanding the entire research process in depth. The course stresses the integration of research into medical practice. Appropriate readings and periodic discussions will be used to augment the guided project development effort. The ultimate goal of this elective is to complete and publish one paper in a peer-reviewed journal, or present the student’s work in an appropriate research forum.

        Students also attend all regular weekly Emergency Medicine resident and student conferences during the elective. Students’ duty schedules are adjusted to accommodate these educational sessions.

        Offered:  Must have 3 month notice.

        Objectives:
        • Search the research literature efficiently.
        • Use the literature to frame a research project.
        • Describe the process of experimental design.
        • Recognize the importance of research design in the success of a project.
        • Determine appropriate statistical analysis techniques for the most widely used experimental designs.
        • Plan a research project from concept development through data analysis and report writing.
        • Execute a research project from concept development through data analysis and report writing.
        • Describe the complexities of cost-benefits in research.
        • Describe the complexities of ethical issues in research.
        • Produces a peer-reviewed quality paper following appropriate research methodology.
        EMER 9220 Selected Topics in Emergency Medicine
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        EMER 9410 Emergency Medical Services
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Mastenbrook
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This elective offers students the opportunity to learn about and experience pre-hospital and disaster medicine through a series of structured didactic sessions and hands-on field experiences. This elective is made possible by several partnerships: WMed Department of Emergency Medicine Division of EMS, Kalamazoo County Medical Control Authority, Kalamazoo Department of Public Safety, Oshtemo Township Fire Department, Kalamazoo County 911 Dispatch, Life EMS, and PrideCare.

         

        EMS is a relatively new specialty in the house of medicine, becoming an ABEM Boarded subspecialty in September 2010 with the first certification exam being administered in 2013. The Kalamazoo County EMS system is a high-performance single tier ALS system with countywide BLS first responders. Serving a population of a quarter million, the EMS system is made up of four ambulance services covering designated areas of the county and sixteen first responder agencies – fire departments and public safety.

         

        The four-week curriculum is broken into 4 topic blocks, including history of ems, introduction to medical direction and system design, quality improvement and finance, and special ops. The NAEMSP textbook and online FEMA resources will be utilized. Students will ride along with our physician-staffed medical support unit twice a week, spend a day with a fire department/public safety agency, and observe emergency call taking and dispatching at a 911 and ems dispatch center. Additionally, students will participate in monthly local and regional meetings, weekly fellow didactics and emergency medicine grand rounds, monthly SIM lab, and monthly EMS case review. The course concludes with a written exam based on the 4 topic blocks and a written course evaluation. The course readings, exam, and evaluation will be available through an online learning platform, Moodle. Students may work ahead on assignments. Course faculty include WMed EMS Fellowship faculty/fellows and WMed EM senior residents.

        Offered:  October-December and February-May

        Objectives:
        • Discuss key historical events and legislation in the development of the modern US EMS system
        • Describe a difference between the American and Franco-German model of ems delivery
        • Discuss key features of six different EMS agency design types
        • Provide examples of direct and indirect medical direction
        • Describe three different ambulance deployment strategies
        • Define PSAP, EMD, Primary/Secondary/Tertiary caller
        • Discuss the differences among certification, licensing, and credentialing
        • List several examples of high risk ems calls
        • Discuss the purpose of quality improvement and give an example of how a fishbone diagram can be used in QI
        • Describe several components of an ems agency budget
        • Calculate unit hour utilization
        • Define the terms Disaster and MCI
        • Draw and label a basic ICS diagram: command and section chiefs
        • Describe and utilize SALT triage
        • Discuss several considerations for mass gatherings
        EMER 9610 Emergency Medicine
        Credits:
        4
        Directors:
        Kothari
        Description:

        Emergency Medicine Selective provides experiences with a diverse set of patients spanning all ages and experiencing many pathological conditions that present to the emergency department. Students are expected to perform the initial patient assessment, formulate a differential diagnosis and problem list, present the patient to a senior resident or attending physician, write orders, interpret diagnostic studies, discuss patients with consultants, perform or assist with procedures under supervision, write discharge instructions, and facilitate admissions and transfers.

        Offered:  Not offered in July

        Objectives:
        • Perform a directed medical history and physical examination appropriate to the patient’s presentation.
        • Develop an appropriate differential diagnosis based on the patients’ complaint, history and physical exam.
        • Develop an appropriate management plan to evaluate & treat the patient’s condition.
        EMER 9710 Advanced Emergency Medicine
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        R. Kothari
        Grading:
        Honors/Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advanced Emergency Medicine Selective provides experiences with a diverse set of patients spanning all ages and experiencing many pathological conditions that present to the emergency department. Students are expected to perform the initial patient assessment, formulate a differential diagnosis and problem list, present the patient to a senior resident or attending physician, write orders, interpret diagnostic studies, discuss patients with consultants, perform or assist with procedures under supervision, write discharge instructions, and facilitate admissions and transfers.

        Offered:  Not offered in July

        Objectives:
        • Obtain a medical history and perform a physical examination appropriate to the patient’s presentation.
        • Develop a thorough differential diagnosis based on the patients’ complaint, and the history & physical exam.
        • Develop an appropriate management plan to evaluate & treat the patient’s condition.
        EPID 7510 Selected Topics in Epidemiology and Biostatistics - Section 1 Writing and Publishing a Case Report: An Elective Cure for Hypergraphia
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Laura Bauer
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This course will provide an overview on best practices in writing case reports. Students will learn how to conduct a literature review, define the rationale for presenting a case, write a concise and focused case report, and edit their initial manuscript to produce a first draft. The goal of this course is to provide students with a guided writing experience to prepare them for future writing in medicine. For motivated students, a publication could also result from their work, although that will require additional investment beyond the course.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Identify the rationale for publishing a case
        • Conduct a literature review
        • Distinguish the components of a publication-worthy case report
        • Compose a case report manuscript and cover letter
        FMED 7510 Selected Topics in Family and Community Medicine - Section 1 Family Medicine Maternity Care
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Wilke, Graves
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Description and time expectation: This is a 30-hour experience. The first day of the course is devoted to completing the Basic Life Support in Obstetrics (BLSO ©) course. Subsequently, the student will work with the residents and faculty in triage and on Labor and Delivery, involved directly in prenatal care and delivery.

        Objectives:
        • To equip students with the basic skills needed to assist in normal and emergency obstetric situations
        FMED 7510 Selected Topics in Family and Community Medicine - Section 2 Sports Medicine
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Wilke, Graves
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This is a 30-hour experience. The student will work directly with fellows and faculty in the ambulatory setting providing pre-participation evaluations and evaluation and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week.  July thru Septembe

        Objectives:
        • Evaluate common sport-related musculoskeletal problems
        • Evaluate common medical disorders with implications for sports participation
        • Conduct pre-participation evaluation
        • Discuss common procedures in treating sports related problems
        FMED 7510 Selected Topics in Family and Community Medicine - Section 3 Hospital Family Medicine
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Wilke, Graves
        Description:

        Description and time expectation: This is a 30-hour experience. The student will work with the residents and faculty on the inpatient Family Medicine Service, caring for hospitalized patients. The student will have the opportunity to do night call with the team.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Improve ability to evaluate and initiate management of patients requiring hospitalization
        • Enhance case presentation, team management and discharge planning skills
        • Gain familiarity with the use of consultants
        FMED 7510 Selected Topics in Family and Community Medicine - Section 4 Ambulatory Family Medicine
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Wilke, Graves
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Description and time expectation: This is a 30-hour experience. The student will work directly with the residents and faculty in the ambulatory setting and can expect to be involved directly in preventative services, care of acute and chronic conditions, prenatal care, and basic office procedures.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Develop an understanding of the biopsychosocial model in health care
        • Become familiar with the evaluation and management of common acute presentations presenting to a primary care office
        • Use an evidenced based approach to treat chronic medical conditions presenting to a primary care office
        • Apply basic principles and evidence regarding prevention to patients of all ages
        FMED 7510 Selected Topics in Family and Community Medicine - Section 6 Migrant Farmworker Health Elective
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Mack
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will gain experience providing health services for medically underserved migrant farmworkers in southwest Michigan. Specifically, students will join InterCare medical personnel in a mobile clinic that travels from farm to farm, in a fixed clinic located in Bangor, MI, and traveling to farmworker housing to perform health screenings. Responsibilities will include assisting InterCare medical personnel with obtaining patient medical histories and performing physical examinations. This elective experience lasts 3 days; each day students will commute to and from Bangor, MI, via personal vehicle (~40 minute trip).

        Total time expectation: 25-30 hours per week.

        Offered: During Year 2, June-September only

        Objectives:
        • Understand health disparities that affect the migrant farmworker population.
        • Become familiar with the challenges of both providing and obtaining medical services for a migrant population.
        • Be able to deliver culturally competent care.
        FMED 7510 Selected Topics in Family and Community Medicine - Section 7 Migrant Health Outreach
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Bouchard & Dickson
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The purpose of this longitudinal elective is to facilitate health care for the migrant population during the picking season which is from April to October. The Holy Family Health Practice- of Dr. Don Bouchard serves primarily the migrant population in Hartford Michigan. The practice is predominantly pediatric however some adults are seen with the family practice nurse provider and volunteer family physician. The practice owns and operates a mobile health care unit that serves migrant workers on the weekends while they are in the fields.

        Students who elect to take this elective will have an opportunity to understand the health care needs as well as social determinants that impact the migrant population first hand. They will also have the opportunity to learn how to work with interpreters, and to participate in taking histories and patient examinations. 

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

        1. Discuss common health problems of the migrant population
        2. Practice providing health care services using an interpreter
        3. Practice history taking and physical examination skills
        4. Facilitate delivery of supplies to families in need such as food and clothing that is donated
        FMED 8110 Family and Community Medicine
        Credits:
        8
        Directors:
        VanDerKolk
        Grading:
        Honors/Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The Family and Community Medicine Year 3 Clerkship is designed to introduce students to the depth and breadth of family medicine, and the critical role it plays in the delivery of health care in the United States.  Students will be exposed to a wide variety of material, some seen in other clerkships and rotations, but in the context of the core overriding principle of family medicine, continuity of care.

        In the pre-week, students will be exposed to preventive care and screening tests in addition to health topics and medical procedures frequently encountered in an outpatient family medicine office.  By the end of the week, students will be able to confidently address routine health maintenance visits and many common outpatient conditions.

        The clinical weeks will be spent in a single family medicine office, giving the students the opportunity to experience the breadth of diagnoses and visit types seen in family medicine in addition to continuity of care.  Individual learning topics and case assignments will guide students through several areas of study during the rotation.

        The post-week is designed to review and synthesize the core concepts learned throughout the rotation in order to successfully complete the NBME Shelf Exam and OSCE. It will also provide students with time to debrief the rotation and discuss difficult experiences in a non-judgmental environment.

        Objectives:
        • Upon completion of the Family and Community Medicine Clerkship the third year student shall be able to:
        • Discuss the principles of family medicine care and the critical role of family physicians within any health care system.
        • Gather information, formulate differential diagnoses, and propose plans for the initial evaluation and management of patients with common presentations.
        • Manage follow-up visits with patients presenting with one or more common chronic diseases.
        • Develop evidence-based health promotion and disease prevention plans for patients of any age or gender including education, risk reduction and health enhancement strategies.
        • Demonstrate competency in advanced elicitation of history, communication, physical examination, and critical thinking skills.
        • Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism and medical ethics in all patient encounters.
        • Demonstrate professional behaviors when interacting with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals).

         

        *Adapted from the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine

        FMED 8110 Family and Community Medicine
        Credits:
        5.5
        Directors:
        VanDerKolk
        Grading:
        Honors/High Pass/Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The Family and Community Medicine Year 3 Clerkship is designed to introduce students to the depth and breadth of family medicine, and the critical role it plays in the delivery of health care in the United States.  Students will be exposed to a wide variety of material, some seen in other clerkships and rotations, but in the context of the core overriding principle of family medicine, continuity of care.

        Objectives:
        • Discuss the principles of family medicine care and the critical role of family physicians within any health care system.
        • Gather information, formulate differential diagnoses, and propose plans for the initial evaluation and management of patients with common presentations.
        • Manage follow-up visits with patients presenting with one or more common chronic diseases.
        • Develop evidence-based health promotion and disease prevention plans for patients of any age or gender including education, risk reduction and health enhancement strategies.
        • Demonstrate competency in advanced elicitation of history, communication, physical examination, and critical thinking skills.
        • Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism and medical ethics in all patient encounters.
        • Demonstrate professional behaviors when interacting with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals).

        *  Adapted from the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine.

        FMED 9210 Family and Community Medicine Research
        Credits:
        4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        FMED 9220 Selected Topics in Family and Community Medicine
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        FMED 9420 Sports Medicine
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Baker
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        “Sports Medicine is a body of knowledge and broad area of health care which includes (1) exercise as an essential component of health throughout life, (2) medical management and supervision of recreational and competitive athletes and all other who exercise, and (3) exercise for the prevention and treatment of disease”. 

        A physician with significant specialized training in both the treatment and prevention of illness and injury, the Sports Medicine Specialist helps patients maximize function and minimize disability and time away from sports, work, or school and is a leader of the Sports Medicine team, which also may include specialty physicians and surgeons, athletic trainers, physical therapists, coaches, other personnel, and the athlete. Students have the opportunity to see patients in the outpatient setting as well as accompany attending and fellow during training room visits. Students will be expected to attend sporting events and write up appropriate cases with the assistance of the attending.

        Offered:  Not offered February thru August

        Objectives:
        • Identify a chief complaint for any patient presenting to the Sports Medicine Clinic
        • Obtain an adequate history and physical exam for common Sports Medicine complaints
        • Synthesize history, physical exam findings and other patient data to complete an assessment of the Athlete’s condition in a variety of sports medicine settings (ie. Office, training room, sidelines, ultrasound suite, etc.)
        • Propose a plan for each problem identified in the visit
        • Present patients with common Sports Medicine conditions in a complete and concise manner, including the assessment and plan
        • Integrate evidence-based medicine and preventive care into the Sports Medicine visit
        • Be familiar with the examination of major joints in sports related injuries
        • Be familiar with the approach to the management of the most common sports related injuries
        • Gain exposure to the role/use of exercise and modalities physical therapy in the management of sports related injuries
        • Be familiar with prevention of athletic injuries
        • Be aware of medical issues related to mass participation in sports
        FMED 9710 Advanced Hospital Family Medicine
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        VanDerKolk
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advanced hospital clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume greater responsibility for patient care of the hospitalized patient, with oversight from supervising residents and attending physicians. Students expand upon competencies they develop during the third year as they care for one to two patients at a time. Additional expectations include responsibility for developing management plans, writing orders, patient handovers and transfers of care, recognizing the policies that support patient safety, and developing competency in procedures that they will perform independently as residents. Fourth year students also assist in teaching third year students.

        Advanced Hospital Family Medicine is an opportunity for students to participate in a busy, family medicine oriented, academic inpatient service at Bronson Methodist Hospital. Students will act as a sub-intern on the Family Medicine Service (FMS), comprised of and supervised by residents and attendings from the Department of Family and Community Medicine.

        Participants will have the opportunity to work both days and nights on the service. While on days, students can expect to be responsible for the review, evaluation and management of 1-2 admitted patients under direct supervision. They will participate in regular daily rounds, presenting each patient under their care to the attending physician with their plan for the day. Students will be expected to present regularly on medical topics pertinent to the patients under their care. On nights, students will review and evaluate admitted patients and have the opportunity to admit patients from the emergency department.

        This course can be taken as a required clerkship or an elective.

        Offered:  All weeks

        Objectives:
        • Identify patients requiring hospitalization for management of their conditions.
        • Obtain a complete History and Physical for a patient being admitted to the hospital.
        • Synthesize information from various sources to develop an assessment of the patient’s condition, culminating in a complete problem list with differential diagnoses.
        • Propose an initial management plan for each of the patients’ diagnoses.
        • Document adequately and completely the history, physical, and assessment and plan for the hospitalized patient.
        • Describe the presentation and initial management of several common inpatient conditions including COPD exacerbations, cellulitis, pancreatitis and others.

        Advanced Clerkship Goals:

        1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
        2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills
        3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
        4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
        5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
        6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
        7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
        8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs, tests).
        9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
        10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
        11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
        12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
        13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
        14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
        15. Provide key aspects of the ideal handover to the recipient, including verbalizing the patient's illness severity and/or providing action planning and/or contingency planning.
        16. Demonstrates awareness of known threats to handover communication (e.g., interruptions and distractions) by paying attention to the timing and location of the handover communication.
        17. Acts as an active and integrate member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
        18. Understands the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
        19. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
        20. Adhere to institutional procedures and protocols regarding escalation of patient care.
        21. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
        22. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
        23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
          • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
          • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures
          • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
          • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
        24. Identify real potential errors.
        25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, hand washing).
        26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
        FMED 9720 Advanced Ambulatory Family Medicine
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        VanDerKolk
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advanced ambulatory clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume initial responsibility for the evaluation of patients in the ambulatory setting. Supervision will be provided by faculty preceptors in the academic setting as well as community private practices. Students expand upon competencies they developed during the third year as they team with residents and/or preceptors to provide preventive health services as well as acute and chronic illness management. The faster pace of ambulatory care provides an environment that strengthens patient and family communication skills, rapport development, and oral presentations. The use of evidence to inform treatment and counseling of patients and their caregivers are additional competencies that are highlighted in the outpatient setting.

        Advanced Ambulatory Family Medicine is an opportunity for students to participate in a busy, resident-based family medicine outpatient clinic at the Family Health Center, a Federally Qualified Health Center. Students will act as entry level residents with direct supervision by senior Family and Community Medicine residents or attending physicians. Participants will perform the initial evaluation of patients, review patient records, and assimilate the information they have gathered into a complete assessment of the patient’s presenting problems. Finally, students will be expected to develop a plan for each problem identified.  Patients will be regularly presented to supervising physicians to finalize plans and follow-up. This course can be taken as a required ambulatory clerkship or an elective.

        Offered:  All weeks

        Objectives:
        • Identify a chief complaint for any patient presenting to the office.
        • Obtain an adequate history and physical exam for common outpatient complaints.
        • Synthesize history, physical exam findings and other patient data to complete an assessment of the patient’s condition.
        • Propose a plan for each problem identified in the visit.
        • Present patients with common outpatient conditions in a complete and concise manner, including the assessment and plan.
        • Integrate evidence-based medicine and preventive care into acute outpatient visits.
        • Begin to reconcile differences between preventive care guidelines from various organizations.

        Advanced Clerkship Goals:

        1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
        2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills.
        3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
        4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
        5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
        6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
        7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
        8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs tests).
        9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
        10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
        11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
        12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
        13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
        14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
        15. Act as an active and integrated member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
        16. understand the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
        17. Maintains a professional demeanor in all but the most trying of circumstances.
        18. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
        19. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
        20. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
        21. Provides complete information to patients and families.
        22. Avoids medical jargon in communicating with patients and families.
        23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
          • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
          • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures.
          • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
          • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
        24. Identify real and potential errors.
        25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, handwashing).
        26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
        IND 7110 Independent Study
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Vandre
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This course may be taken after completing four Foundations of Medicine electives but prior to completing the first third-year clerkship. Independent Study may be taken for 1 – 8 weeks and is used to study for examination requirements such as the NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Exam

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective weeks and during Year 3 first rotation

        Objectives:

        You will be required to identify four self-directed learning objectives. Upon completion of this elective, you will be asked to reflect on the following two questions:

        1. How did you identify, analyze, and synthesize relevant information to achieve your two objectives?
        2. How did you appraise the credibility of your information sources?

         

         

         

        IND 9110 Independent Study
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Gibson
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This course may be taken after completing the first third-year clerkship. Independent Study may be taken for 1 – 8 weeks and is used to study for examination requirements such as the USMLE Step 1 Exam. 

        Offered: Year 3 or 4

        Objectives:

        You will be required to identify four self-directed learning objectives. Upon completion of this elective, you will be asked to reflect on the following two questions:

        1. How did you identify, analyze, and synthesize relevant information to achieve your two objectives?
        2. How did you appraise the credibility of your information sources?

         

        INTL 7110 International Health
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Woodhams
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The medical school may sponsor international health activities, including courses and clerkships, that are taught by medical school faculty who deliver the curriculum and supervise the medical students. These are designated by the prefix abbreviation “INTL.” All international travelers on school‑sponsored activities must comply with medical school policy GEN09, International Travel for Activities Sponsored by the Medical School. Medical student participation in international health activities away from the medical school is a privilege that is optional and not required for advancement or graduation. Students in Foundations of Medicine may not register for an international health activity if they have failed the initial summative examination in a course during the current or previous term.

        A maximum of one of the four required one-week electives in Foundations of Medicine may be performed at an international site for which the medical school faculty directly deliver the curriculum and supervise the students, with prior approval of the associate dean for Educational Affairs.

        The lead faculty member for a school‑sponsored international activity that involves students or residents/fellows is required to serve as the Campus Safety Authority (CSA) for the activity as stipulated in medical school policy GEN09, International Travel for Activities Sponsored by the Medical School. This requires notification to the Chief Safety and Security Officer (director of Facilities) and completion of the required CSA training prior to departure. Within five business days following the conclusion of the activity the lead faculty member must submit a crime report to the Chief Safety and Security Officer.

        The medical school does not permit international travel on school‑sponsored activities to locations for which the US Department of State has issued a Travel Warning that remains in place. Individuals who travel internationally on school‑sponsored activities are expected to heed US Department of State Travel Alerts about disturbances and elevated risks.

        All international travelers on school‑sponsored activities are required to obtain all necessary immunizations and take all necessary precautions appropriate for the travel sites and the activities conducted.

        All international travelers on school‑sponsored activities are required to enroll in the US Department of State Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP). This is a free program that provides you with travel alerts and warnings, and makes it easier for the US Department of State to locate you in an emergency.

        The medical school has insurance that provides for emergency assistance, including emergency medical evacuation and repatriation coverage, for medical students, residents/fellows, and faculty while traveling internationally on school‑sponsored activities. Individuals on school‑sponsored international activities must create a personal profile and register the trip with ACE Executive Assistance Services atwww.acetravelapp.com using policy number PHFD38379173. Further information is available from Human Resources or the office of Faculty Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        INTL 7110 Selected Topics in International Health Section 1 Global Health Initiative
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Woodhams
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This elective is in the second term of the second-year of medical school. The elective consists of eight two‑hour interactive discussions led by faculty with a student moderator. Each event includes preparatory readings and videos related to the discussion topic.

        Each student is responsible for developing and moderating a one‑hour educational event as assigned by the course director.

        Student Requirements

        • Attending a minimum of 7 of the 8 events. For 2017-18, events are held on the following Fridays:
          • November 10, 2017
          • December 1, 2017
          • December 8, 2017
          • January 12, 2018
          • January 26, 2018
          • February 23, 2018
          • March 2, 2018
          • March 9, 2018
        • Serving as a student moderator as assigned for one event.
        • Demonstrate engagement and professionalism.
          • Read assigned materials ahead of time.
          • Arrive on time.
          • Take responsibility for your own education.
        • Demonstrate competence in interpersonal and communication skills working with patients and other health care team members.

        Offered: Limited to second-year students only. Maximum enrollment of 15 students.

        Objectives:
        1. Describe global health as a field, its history, relevance of millennium development goals, and the role that physicians have in influencing health within a community when considered from a global perspective.
        2. Identify some of the factors (eg, political, social, historical, economic, environmental) that have contributed to the spread of infectious diseases globally and in lower and middle-income countries in particular.
        3. Describe how economic disparities affect health in differing populations and the challenges and successes of addressing these disparities.
        4. Describe how public infrastructure and culture affect health in differing settings around the world.
        5. Demonstrate leadership skills in developing and implementing a global health educational session with colleagues.
        MED 7510 Selected Topics in Medicine - Section 1 General Internal Medicine Clinic
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Loehrke
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work alongside departmental faculty and supervising residents caring for internal medicine patients in the Department’s Internal Medicine Clinic. Students will attend Pre-Clinic Conference (8am) with the faculty & residents and then attend clinic from 8:30 AM to 12 noon. Students will also attend weekly Internal Medicine block conferences. Time expected is 20-30 hours per week.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • See common clinical problems in outpatient Internal Medicine practice, including triage of acute and chronic problems and provision of appropriate preventive medicine services
        • Assesses purpose of each patient visit, eliciting a level-appropriate history and exam related to presenting problem(s)
        • Demonstrate appropriate interactions and relationships with patients and families
        • Demonstrate appropriate awareness of potential roadblocks to patient compliance, including patient educational level, language barriers, financial resources, and support systems available for transportation and implementation of diagnostic and treatment plans
        MED 7510 Selected Topics in Medicine - Section 2 Cardiology
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Loehrke
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work alongside internal medicine residents and faculty affiliated with Advanced Cardiology. Students will attend morning report with faculty & resident, as well as attend weekly Internal Medicine block conferences. They will work with assigned residents and faculty in the inpatient setting. Total time expected is 20-30 hours.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Obtain a level-appropriate cardiac history
        • Perform a level-appropriate cardiovascular exam
        • Recognize patients presenting with CHF
        • List a level- appropriate differential diagnosis of patients presenting with chest pain
        MED 7510 Selected Topics in Medicine - Section 3 Infectious Disease
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Loehrke
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work alongside internal medicine residents and ID faculty. Students will attend morning report with faculty & residents as well as weekly Internal Medicine block conference. Total time expected is 20-30 hours.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Obtain a level-appropriate history from patients suspected of having infectious diseases
        • Perform a level-appropriate exam on such patients.
        • Understand basic microbiology and prevention of infectious diseases
        • Understand basic principles of epidemiology and transmission of infection including environmental, occupational and host factors that predispose to infection
        MED 7510 Selected Topics in Medicine - Section 5 Palliative Medicine
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Loehrke
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

         Students will work alongside internal medicine residents and faculty. Students will attend morning report with faculty & residents as well as weekly Internal Medicine block conference. Total time expected is 20-30 hours.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Obtain a level-appropriate history from patients needing palliative medicine consultation
        • Perform a level-appropriate exam on such patients
        • Recognize medical, social and psychological decision affecting palliative care
        • Participate in family meetings with multidisciplinary teams for determination of appropriate care
        MED 7510 Selected Topics in Medicine - Section 16 Gastroenterology
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Melissa Olken, MD, PhD
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Gastrointestinal diseases, both acute and chronic, are common complaints of the adult patient. Students will become more familiar with the evaluation and management of those GI conditions that have not been able to be managed by patient's primary care physician.

        Objectives:

        The student will be able to describe and define the following conditions frequently encountered in the adult patient with GI complaints. This includes familiarity with the appropriate history features and physical exam findings seen in the specific GI conditions, the differential diagnosis for patients with specific symptoms (but no diagnosis yet) and evidence-based management strategies.

        1. Gastroesophageal reflux
        2. Common causes of GI bleeding, upper (ulcers, varices) and lower (diverticulitis, various colitis conditions, cancer)
        3. Diarrhea
        4. Nausea and vomiting
        5. Cirrhosis (due to any cuase)
        6. Colon polyps and cancer
        MED 7510 Selected Topics in Medicine - Section 6 Academic Internal Medicine
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Loehrke
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work alongside internal medicine residents and faculty in the inpatient Academic Medicine service of either Bronson Methodist Hospital or Borgess Medical Center. Students will attend sign out rounds (7am) and morning report (at 8am) with the faculty & residents, as well as attending weekly Internal Medicine block conferences. Total time expected is 20-30 hours.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Obtain a level-appropriate history from patients presenting to the Academic medicine service
        • Perform a level-appropriate exam on such patients.
        • List level-appropriate differential diagnoses on such patients
        • Demonstrate appropriate interpersonal communication skills with patients, families and team
        MED 7510 Selected Topics in Medicine - Section 7 General Medical Hematology/Oncology
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Berger
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Under the supervision of Drs. Sreenivasa Chandana, Sunil Nagpal, Sanja Kaluza and Mohammad Omaira, students will gain exposure to a general medical hematology/oncology patient population. They will attend all Tumor Conferences, and round with medical oncologists and hematologists. Students will present one patient with a hematological disease to their supervising faculty. Readings will be assigned from Up-To-Date regarding specific conditions encountered. Students report at 7:00 a.m. Monday-Friday and maximum time expectation is 30 hours per week.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MED 7510 Selected Topics in Medicine - Section 9 GYN Oncology
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Hoekstra
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Under the supervision of Drs. Anna Hoekstra and Ben Mize, students will gain a basic understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of cancer of the female reproductive tract. Readings will be assigned from Up-To-Date regarding at least one type of GYN cancer. Students report at 7:00 a.m. Monday-Friday and maximum time expectation is 30 hours per week.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

        1. Understand risk factors for each gynecologic malignancy: uterine, ovarian, vulvar, cervical cancer and gestational trophoblastic disease
        2. Identify diagnostic tests and symptoms of each disease site
        3. Review basic treatment approach to each disease site
        4. Introduction of the student to basic interaction with patients and basic physical exam skills
        MED 7510 Selected Topics in Medicine - Section 10 Inpatient Hematology/Oncology
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Berger
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Under the supervision of Drs. Linda Grossheim, Jeffrey Radawski, and Daniel Schroyer, students will be introduced to general principles of radiation oncology. They will gain a basic understanding of treatment planning, dosimetry, and the general side effects of radiation therapy. Students will attend Tumor Conferences. Readings will include relevant Up-To-Date articles and NCCN guidelines. Students report at 7:00 a.m. Monday-Friday and maximum time expectation is 30 hours per week.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MED 7510 Selected Topics in Medicine - Section 11 Introduction to Radiation Oncology
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Grossheim, Mislmani
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Under the supervision of Drs. Linda Grossheim, Jeffrey Radawski, Dr. Mazen Mislmani and Daniel Schroyer, students will be introduced to general principles of radiation oncology. They will gain a basic understanding of treatment planning, dosimetry, and the general side effects of radiation therapy. Students will attend Tumor Conferences. Readings will include relevant Up-To-Date articles and NCCN guidelines. Students report at 7:00 a.m. Monday-Friday and maximum time expectation is 30 hours per week.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this elective, students will be able to:

        • Familiarize the participant with the indications for radiation therapy and the basics of how it is administered.
        MED 7510 Selected Topics in Medicine - Section 13 General Neurology
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Jewett
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work alongside neurology faculty in the outpatient Neurology offices of Bronson Neuroscience Center. Students will also participate in inpatient neurology consults, as available, with neurology faculty. Students will attend all neurology conferences as available. Total time expectation is 20-30 hours.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Obtain a level-appropriate history from patients presenting to the neurology service
        • Perform a level-appropriate exam
        • List level-appropriate differential diagnoses on patients
        • Recognize the presenting features of common neurologic disorders
        • Demonstrate appropriate interpersonal communication skills with patients, families, and team
        MED 7510 Selected Topics in Medicine - Section 15 Selected Topics in Medicine Physiatry
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Yu
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Gain insights into the broad field of physiatry, specifically medical spine care, through reading, observation, and patient care.
        • Observe and perform focused history taking and physical examination of patients presenting with spine pain.
        • Observe and learn indications for performing electrodiagnostic studies of the limbs for the spine pain population who present with peripheral pain and neurologic complaints.
        • Observe and learn indications for interventional spinal injection procedures for low back pain.
        MED 8110 Medicine
        Credits:
        8
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Honors/Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The 8-week third year Medicine clerkship offers a variety of internal medicine clinical experiences.  Students will be assigned to either Borgess Medical Center or Bronson Methodist Hospital as their "home base" facility.  Students will immerse themselves 
with 1 week of ambulatory internal medicine, 
2 weeks of academic medicine, 1 week of hospitalist medicine, 1 week of nights, and 1 week in a subspecialty (e.g. palliative care, renal, cardiology or infectious disease). During these clerkships students immerse themselves into the clinical environment, taking on specific responsibilities as a valued member of the healthcare team, while being supervised at 
all times.   The WMed third year curriculum includes a number of innovations designed to optimize the students’ experience and provide an excellent foundation for future growth as a clinician. Two of these innovations are the Preparatory Week and the Summary and Assessment Week that flank each six-week clinical experience. The Preparatory Week is designed to optimally prepare the student to excel in the specific clinical setting for the discipline. The Summary and Assessment Week focuses on synthesizing the key knowledge and skills learned during the clerkship and include formative and summative assessments. During both these weeks, one day is dedicated interdisplinary activities in which students from all clerkships join together for a joint educational experience in an overarching topical area.

        Objectives:
        • Upon completion of the Internal Medicine Clerkship the third year student shall be able to:
        • Obtain an accurate medical history of an adult patient.
        • Complete an accurate physical examination of an adult patient.
        • Formulate a differential diagnosis and a diagnostic plan from the history and physical findings of an adult patient.
        • Make an oral presentation and write a note after interviewing and examining a patient.
        • Interpret the results and know the indications and risks of common tests for adult patients.
        • Develop appropriate therapeutic plans for active problems in adult patients.
        • Implement appropriate therapeutic plans for active problems in adult patients.
        • Demonstrate the learning skills and ability to identify and meet emerging information needs for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of adult patients.
        • Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism and medical ethics in all patient encounters.
        • Demonstrate skills for coordination of care and communication with colleagues.
        • Demonstrate the knowledge required to provide care for adult patients.
        • Demonstrate effective communication strategies with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals).
        • Demonstrate professional behaviors when interacting with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals). 

        *Adapted from Yale University School of Medicine’s reduced version of the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine/ Society of General Internal Medicine objectives.

        MED 8110 Medicine and Neurology
        Credits:
        11
        Directors:
        Olken, Crooks
        Grading:
        Honors/High Pass/Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The 11-week third year combined Medicine/Neurology Clerkship offers a variety of internal medicine and neurology clinical experiences.  Students will be assigned to either Borgess Medical Center or Bronson Methodist Hospital as their "home base" facility.  Students will immerse themselves ​with 1 week of ambulatory internal medicine, 2 weeks of WMed academic medicine, 2 weeks of hospitalist medicine, 1 week of nights, 1 week in a subspecialty (e.g. palliative care, cardiology or infectious disease) and each student will spend one week on the inpatient service for neurology at Bronson Methodist Hospital, Borgess Medical Center, or Bronson Battle Creek Hospital.  They will be a member of the team seeing consults and caring for the hospitalized patients with neurological issues.  During this week they also will be involved in the evaluation of acute infarcts/strokes.

        Objectives:
        • Obtain an accurate medical history on adult patients.
        • Perform a thorough physical examination on adult patients.
        • Obtain an accurate, relevant focused medical history when appropriate.
        • Obtain an accurate, relevant focused physical examination when appropriate.
        • Formulate a differential diagnosis from the history and physical findings of an adult patient.
        • Formulate a diagnostic plan from the history and physical findings of an adult patient.
        • Determine indications for common diagnostic tests.
        • Interpret diagnostic test results for adult patients.
        • Generate a therapeutic plan for the patient’s acute and active chronic medical problems, including rehabilitative and end-of-life goals, for a given clinical encounter utilizing evidence-based medicine.
        • Communicate organized the patient information with available data into the appropriate note type.
        • Communicate findings into concise oral patient presentations.
        • Recognize wellness, determinants of health, and preventive health guidelines for adult patients.
        • Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism including medical ethics at all times.
        • Communicate relevant patient information to pertinent healthcare workers.
        • Solicit feedback with acceptance of constructive criticism to address gaps in medical knowledge, clinical reasoning, and clinical skills.
        • Demonstrate self-learning as applied to patient’s clinical problems.
        • Recognize importance of one’s own wellness. 

        *Adapted from Yale University School of Medicine’s reduced version of the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine/ Society of General Internal Medicine objectives.

        Neurology Objectives*:

        • Examine patients with altered level of consciousness or abnormal mental status.
        • Identify grossly abnormal findings in patients with altered level of consciousness or abnormal mental status.
        • Deliver a clear, concise, and thorough oral presentation of a neurologic patient's history and examination.
        • Prepare a clear, concise, and thorough written presentation of a neurologic patient's history and examination.
        • Perform a lumbar puncture on a task trainer demonstrating proper aseptic and procedural technique.
        • Recognize symptoms that may signify neurologic disease (including disturbances of consciousness, cognition, language, vision, hearing, equilibrium, motor function, somatic sensation, and autonomic function).
        • Distinguish normal from abnormal findings on a neurologic examination.
        • Localize the likely site or sites in the nervous system where a lesion could produce a patient's symptoms and signs.
        • Formulate a differential diagnosis based on lesion localization, time course including relevant historical and demographic features.
        • Discuss the use including interpretation of common test used in diagnosing neurological disease.
        • Demonstrate awareness of the principles underlying a systematic approach to the management of common neurologic diseases incorporating the recognition and management of situations that are potential emergencies.

        * Adapted from the American Academy of Neurology, Association of University Professors of Neurology, and American Neurological Association.

        MED 9210 Medicine Research
        Credits:
        4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MED 9220 Selected Topics in Medicine
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MED 9410 Allergy and Asthma
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The prevalence of allergic disease and asthma have increased over the past two decades, particularly in developed countries. This can vary with age, disease and geographic location. Allergy and immunology involves the management of disorders related to hypersensitivity or altered reactivity caused by release of immunologic mediators or by activation of inflammatory mechanisms. Understanding the pathophysiology for allergic inflammation is crucial to best assess patients and make recommendations regarding testing and treatment. This rotation will expose students to a variety of diseases involving altered immunity or hypersensitivity. For these diseases, the student will learn how to initiate diagnostic evaluation and therapy, and learn to recognize other diseases in which altered immunity plays an important role. The student will be assigned to an outpatient allergy setting with an assigned schedule for the month. He/she will see new and established patients with the allergist. On occasion, an inpatient consultation may be required. The student will attend weekly Grand Rounds and Internal Medicine block conference. 

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        The student will be able to describe and define the following conditions frequently encountered in the adult allergist’s outpatient setting. The student will be able to take the appropriate history, perform an appropriate physical exam and formulate a differential diagnosis for the symptoms and signs that bring the patient to seek specialist evaluation. Basic management for the most likely diagnosis should be proposed and discussed with the preceptor, if appropriate for the nature of the patient encounter.

        • Allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis
        • Atopic dermatitis
        • Delayed hypersensitivity reactions
        • Urticaria
        • Diagnostic Testing
          • Skin tests (intracutaneous)
          • IgE-ELISA assays
          • Review pulmonary function testing  
        MED 9420 Cardiology
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Cardiac disease impacts morbidity and mortality in adults, with coronary artery disease the leading cause of death in Americans. Patients in both the inpatient and outpatient setting may have concomitant cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and valvular heart disease. 

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        The student will be able to describe and define the following conditions frequently encountered in adult cardiology patients. This includes familiarity with the evaluation and evidence-based management of these conditions:

        1. Coronary artery occlusive disease
        2. Cardiomyopathies: ischemic, non-ischemic, restrictive, infiltrative
        3. Specific nomenclature for congestive heart failture (CHF) syndrom (e.g. chronic systolic left ventricular CHF, acute on chronic systolic LV CHF, chronic distolic left sided dysfunction/CHF, acute on chronic diastolic left sided CHF, cor pulmonale or right ventricular heart failure - acute or chronic, etc)
        4. Atrial fibrillation
        5. Syncope evaluation (see various algorithms)
        MED 9440 Endocrinology
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The most common endocrine disorder managed by internists is diabetes. Endocrinologists also diagnose and manage other endocrine and metabolic disorders. In this rotation, students will have the opportunity to enhance their skills and strategies for glycemic control, as well as have exposure to other problems seen in an endocrine practice.

        Offered: Not available 2017-2018

        Objectives:
        • Perform a complete history and physical exam eliciting the common historical and physical findings suggestive of metabolic or endocrine disorders.
        • Identify patients with symptoms suggestive of Diabetes Mellitus (DM).
        • Proficiently monitor and manage metabolic or endocrine disorders with available therapeutics.
        • Know the competent management of endocrine emergencies such as:
        1. DKA
        2. Hyperosmolar coma
        3. Thyroid storm
        4. Myxedema coma
        5. Severe fluid
        6. Electrolyte abnormalities
        7. Addisonian crisis
        • Coordinate care of patients with multidisciplinary teams as appropriate.
        • Describe and define the following conditions:
        1. Diabetes mellitus, types 1 and 2
        2. Hypothyroidism
        3. Hyperthyroidism
        4. Primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism
        5. Primary hyperaldosteronism
        6. Cushing syndrome
        7. Adrenal insufficiency
        8. Pituitary adenomas
        MED 9450 Gastroenterology
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Gastrointestinal diseases, both acute and chronic, are common complaints of the adult patient. Students will become more familiar with the evaluation and management of those GI conditions that have not been able to be managed by patient’s primary care physician.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        The student will be able to describe and define the following conditions frequently encountered in the adult patient with GI complaints. This includes familiarity with the appropriate history features and physical exam findings seen in specific GI conditions, the differential diagnosis for patients with specific symptoms (but no diagnosis yet) and evidence-based management strategies.

        • Gastroesophageal reflux
        • Common causes of GI bleeding, upper (ulcers, varices) and lower (diverticulitis, various colitis conditions, cancer)
        • Diarrhea
        • Nausea and vomiting
        • Cirrhosis (due to any cause)
        • Colon polyps and cancer
        MED 9460 Geriatric Medicine
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        According to the Centers for Disease Control, the population of the United States is aging at an unprecedented rate; by 2030, approximately 72 million members of the population, or nearly 20%, will be age 65 or older. Along with the aging of the population will come a great need for physicians and providers trained in the special needs of the older population, from the physical and medical changes that accompany aging to the unique psychosocial needs of older adults.

        Older people over age 65 also account for more than half of the nation’s hospital usage and a significant share of other medical services as well.  An older patient may see an average of ~15 physician visits across various specialties and sites each year. In order to care for the unique needs of this rapidly growing audience, graduating medical students must have the knowledge and understanding of geriatric medicine. Providing effective and compassionate care in various settings and restoring health and function of older patients through various therapies is essential. Goals of care and care plans must be based on each individual patient, with an understanding that function and quality are usually the most important aspects (calling for palliative care vs. aggressive treatment).

        The geriatrics elective offers students an opportunity to evaluate geriatric patients with a variety of medical problems.  Students will have the opportunity to provide comprehensive and team-based care to older adults, as well as have more focused problem-based encounters. Through this unique experience, the medical students will be equipped with a body of knowledge and experiences to carry forward into future professional endeavors (e.g. residency).

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        1. Describe and define common conditions frequently encountered in geriatric patients in an outpatient, long-term care setting.
        2. Perform an appropriate history and physical exam (focused or complete, as applicable). 
        3. Initiate a diagnostic evaluation of typical clinical presentations for common co-morbidities (e.g., congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal failure, unmanaged diabetes, wounds/pressure ulcers, cognitive changes). 
        4. Improve skill level in assessing base-line in patients with multiple co-morbidities. 
        5. Understand the unique physical/medical challenges and social needs that accompany aging in older adults and why an interdisciplinary model of care is most effective.
        6. Describe the preventive health guidelines (i.e., vaccinations, screening tests) for geriatric patients and considerations in counseling patients for preventive health in the context of their age, functional status, and other co-mordidities.
        7. Describe and understand how to support various care paths for geriatric patients (e.g., longevity, functional, palliative, hospice).
        MED 9470 Hematology and Oncology
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Hematologic and oncologic diseases cover a wide array of conditions in adult patients. In this rotation, the student is exposed to the types of patients referred to these specialists for further evaluation and management.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Describe and define the following adult conditions frequently seen by hematologists and oncologists:
          • Algorithm for the evaluation of anemias
          • Leukemias (CLL, AML, APL)
          • Lymphoma, Hodgekins and non-Hodgekins
          • Multiple myeloma
          • Sickle cell disease
          • Lung cancer
          • Colon cancer
          • Prostate cancer
          • Melanoma
        • Demonstrate competent clinical exam skills for detection of abnormal physical findings relating to the lymphohematopoietic system and underlying benign or malignant neoplasms.
        • Develop the initial diagnostic evaluation and management of the hemostatic and clotting system.
        • Appropriately assess the indications and procedure for:
          •  Transfusion of blood and its components.
          •  Therapeutic and prophylactic anticoagulation.
        • Recognize the indications for bone marrow aspirate and biopsy and lymph node biopsy.
        • Discuss the general approach to specific malignancies with patients, including breast, GI, lung, prostate, and thyroid cancers, including further evaluations, prognosis and treatment options.
        • Familiarity with the administration, side effects, and drug interactions of common chemotherapies, immunobiologic agents, and immunosuppressives used in the treatment of hematologic and solid malignancies.
        MED 9480 Infectious Diseases
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Infectious diseases is a broad field that encompasses the evaluation and management of acute infectious processes as well as the management of patients with chronic infectious processes such as human immunodeficiency virus.  Infectious disease specialists play a role in public health, hospital infection control programs/policies and are the champions of antibiotic stewardship.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Be familiar with the following conditions frequently encountered in the adult infectious disease inpatient or outpatient setting.
          • Fever
          • Endocarditis
          • Osteomyelitis
          • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
          • Human immunodeficiency virus
          • Tuberculosis
        • Perform a comprehensive exam with emphasis on potential common and uncommon manifestations as well as potential sites of occult infections.
        • Understand the microbiology, prevention and management of infectious diseases.
        • Understand basic principles of epidemiology and transmission of infection including environmental, occupational and host factors that predispose to infection.
        • Demonstrate competent use of antimicrobial therapy, including choice of agent, dosing, and monitoring of therapy.
        • Provide appropriate preventive care, including optimal use of immunizations and chemoprophylaxis.
        • Develop a rational diagnostic and evaluation plan for the most common clinical presentations of infectious diseases.
        • Describe and interpret tests commonly used in evaluation and treatment of possible infectious problems.
        • Understand how to properly collect culture specimens from throat, cervix, vagina, rectum, urethra and blood.
        • Provide appropriate patient counseling for patients with HIV, substance abuse, and high risk behaviors for contraction and spread of infectious diseases.
        MED 9511 Wound Care
        Credits:
        2
        Directors:
        Olken
        Description:

        Wound care involves a multidisciplinary approach both in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Wound care clinics have physician specialists in surgery and infectious disease, wound care nurse specialists, and sometimes social work/nurse care management professionals. This elective may also be taken as a surgery elective (see surgery electives). The student may be assigned to round with the wound care nurse in the inpatient setting or may see patients in the wound care clinic.

        Offered: All weeks  

        Objectives:

        ·         The student will be familiar with the following topics and conditions associated with wound care.

        a.       Characterize and describe a wound and, if appropriate, stage wounds (e.g. decubitus ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers).

        b.      Assessment of “whole patient” as systemic problems may impact wound healing (e.g., malnutrition, peripheral vascular disease, lymphedema, COPD, anemia, diabetes).

        c.       Type of debridement (if necessary), would cleansing, topical products, and dressing for wounds observed during the elective.

        d.      Lymphedema

        MED 9512 Bariatric Medicine
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Description:

        Obesity is associated with increased risk for a variety of medical problems including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, sleep apnea, and dyslipidemia. Internists are uniquely positioned to diagnose and evaluate obesity, as well as offer interventions. These interventions may include medically supervised weight loss, with or without referral for bariatric surgery and or referral to a specialist. Developing skills in interviewing, counselling and coaching patients to achieve and maintain weight loss can make a profound and significant impact on the physical and psychological health of the adult patient.

        Offered: All weeks  

        Objectives:
        • Review and enhance knowledge on the pathophysiology of obesity and appetite regulation.
        • Describe the 4-pillar approach in the treatment and management of obesity
          • Dietary therapy
          • Behavioral therapy
          • Physical activity
          • Pharmacologic therapy
        • The student will be able to describe and/or define the following frequently encountered topics in the adult medically supervised weight loss setting.
          • Define (using BMI), overweight, obesity, morbid obesity and super obesity.
          • Criteria for bariatric surgery.
          • Compare and contrast the common types of bariatric surgery, including risks/benefits, short and long term complication risks/benefits.
            • Gastric banding (not performed in Kalamazoo any longer, but there are patients who have the band from prior years when it was an option)
            • Gastric bypass (roux-en-Y)
            • Gastric sleeve

        Lifestyle choices associated with weight loss and maintenance

        MED 9520 Neurology
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken/Crooks
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Neurological problems are common in the adult patient. In the hospital setting, neurologists play a pivotal consultative role in the evaluation and management of stroke, seizure disorders, brain masses, and altered mental status. There are numerous chronic neurologic problems that are cared for in the outpatient setting, as well as outpatient consultative evaluations from primary care physicians.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        The student will be familiar with the following conditions frequenty encoutered in the adult with a neurological problem, in either the inpatient or outpatient setting:

        • Recognize, evaluate and manage patients with common neurologic presentations, including development of differential diagnosis and diagnostic and therapeutic plans.
        • Recognize the presenting features of common neurologic disorders:
          • Altered mental status evaluation
          • Seizure disorder
          • Dementias
          • Movement disorders
          • Demyelenating diseases
          • Neuromuscular diseases
          • Spinal cord diseases
          • Neurocutaneous syndromes
          • Headache
        MED 9530 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Physical medicine and rehabilitation is a medical specialty where clinicians may have both an inpatient and outpatient practice. Their focus is on enhancing and restoring functional ability and quality of life to patients with various impairments or disabilities. Many patients who are cared for by a PM&R physician (aka physiatrist) have neurological disabilities such as brain injury (non-traumatic and traumatic), spinal cord, stroke, multiple sclerosis, polio, and other musculoskeletal problems. On this rotation, students will have the opportunity to care for patients in an inpatient setting. These settings are also referred to as “high intensity” rehabilitation settings in that a patient can expect to spend at least 3 hours per day participating in their rehabilitation. Physiatrists work as part of a multidisciplinary team to meet the needs of the “whole” patient in achieving maximal recovery.

        Offered:  All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Obtain a thorough pertinent history and perform a complete relevant exam on new patients admitted to a high intensity rehabilitation unit.
        • Develop a working problem list and goals of care for an individual patient.
        • Follow patients through their rehabilitation process and reflect on the emotional, cognitive, and physical challenges patients and clinicians face in achieving the goals of care.
        • Spend time with various therapists (e.g., physical, occupational, recreational, speech) to learn and understand their role in patient rehabilitation.
        MED 9540 Pulmonary Medicine
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Pulmonary medicine focuses on the evaluation and management of acute and chronic lung disease.  Many pulmonologists have additional expertise in critical care medicine and sleep medicine. The student will gain familiarity with understanding with disorders of the lungs, upper airways, thoracic cavity, and chest wall seen in either the inpatient or outpatient setting, depending on their elective site and preceptor.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Obtain a thorough pertinent history and perform a complete relevant exam on patients presenting with possible pulmonary disorders.
        • Recognize relevant historical data and abnormal physical exam findings in order to develop a differential diagnosis and initiate a treatement plan or recommend further diagnositc testing.
        • Initiate a diagnostic evaluation of common clinical presentations of pulmonary diseases.
          • Asthma
          • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema
          • Pulmonary function testing (indications and interpretation)
          • Lung neoplasms
          • Interstitial lung diseases
          • Pulmonary hypertension
          • Pulmonary embolism
        • Recofnize the indications and appropriately order tests to evaluate pulmonary diseases.
        • Understand the components of pulmonary function testing. 
        • Recognize the indications to order and be able to interpret pulmonary function tests. 
        • Assist in procedures used in the diagnosis and management of common pulmonary diseases (if opportunity arises).
        • Have the opportunity to attend in the sleep lab.
        • Improve skill level in reading chest x-rays and chest CT scans.
        • Recognize the indications for pulmonary consultation.
        • Provide appropriate patient education for primary and secondary prevention of pulmonary disorders (e.g., tobacco exposure, occupational hazzards).
        MED 9560 Bariatric Medicine
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Obesity is associated with increased risk for a variety of medical problems including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, sleep apnea, and dyslipidemia. Internists are uniquely positioned to diagnose and evaluate obesity, as well as offer interventions. These interventions may include medically supervised weight loss, with or without referral for bariatric surgery and or referral to a specialist. Developing skills in interviewing, counselling and coaching patients to achieve and maintain weight loss can make a profound and significant impact on the physical and psychological health of the adult patient.

        Offered: All weeks  

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Review and enhance knowledge on the pathophysiology of obesity and appetite regulation.
        • Describe the 4-pillar approach in the treatment and management of obesity
          • Dietary therapy
          • Behavioral therapy
          • Physical activity
          • Pharmacologic therapy
        • The student will be able to describe and/or define the following frequently encountered topics in the adult medically supervised weight loss setting.
          • Define (using BMI), overweight, obesity, morbid obesity and super obesity.
          • Criteria for bariatric surgery.
          • Compare and contrast the common types of bariatric surgery, including risks/benefits, short and long term complication risks/benefits.
            • Gastric banding (not performed in Kalamazoo any longer, but there are patients who have the band from prior years when it was an option)
            • Gastric bypass (roux-en-Y)
            • Gastric sleeve
          • Lifestyle choices associated with weight loss and maintenance
        MED 9570 Nutritional Sciences
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Nutritional sciences is a broad term encompassing the multi-disciplinary outreach of nutrition form the biological sciences to the social and physical sciences. Nutrients play a role in maintenance and disruption of normal biochemical and physiologic processes in a number of disease conditions, including the development of types of malnutrition. Nutrients may impact drug metabolism and drug-nutrient interactions, as well as nutrient-nutrient interactions. From a population/public health perspective, food availability and the composition of those foods can play a role in the overall health of a community.  Physicians are uniquely positions to incorporate nutritional sciences into their own scholarly activities and clinical practice.

        This elective allows the student to design their own curriculum with potential applications to either basic medical and/or clinical sciences. The student will work closely with the course director or other faculty member to derive their program of study, identify specific objectives, attend relevant WMed lectures/conferences, and pre-determine the summative tasks to be accomplished to fulfill the objectives of the elective. In addition, general basic clinical nutrition readings will be assigned.

        Offered: Depends on Availability of Elective Director

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, students will be able to:

        • The student will be familiar with the components of nutritional assessment and use of malnutrition risk assessment tools used in the inpatient and outpatient setting. 
        • The student recognizes and is able to describe the key historical, physical examination, and diagnostic study results associated with the following conditions frequently encountered in the adult with a nutritional problem (or child, if student opts for a pediatric population setting).  
          • Protein malnutrition (kwashiorkor), calorie malnutrition (marasmus), and protein-calorie malnutrition
          • Common symptoms and signs of vitamin and mineral deficiencies and excesses
        • Creation of individual student curriculum to meet individual learning goals 
          • For example:
            • Nutritional management of glycemic control
            • Medical management of obesity
            • Medical culinary arts
            • Community health/food availability issues related to population health
        MED 9580 Palliative Care
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Palliative care focuses on improving quality of life and providing comfort to people of all ages with serious, chronic and life-threatening illnesses. While many think of “hospice” as being synonymous with palliative care, it is not as hospice primarily serves the patient whose life expectancy is less than 6 months. During this elective, the student will observe the spectrum of palliative care, from helping families and the patient understand and cope with the diagnosis of a serious illness that may or may not be able to be cured, with end-of-life discussions including goal setting, with symptom relief management to offer comfort, and with the transition to hospice care when appropriate. A palliative care service is a multidisciplinary team consisting of the physician, advanced practice provider, and medical social worker. Chaplain services as well as rehabilitation and nutrition specialists may be consulted if needed to fulfill the overall care plan. At Bronson, their program is called “Advanced Illness Management”.

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Communication with the patient and family (e.g. goals of care, delivering bad news, code status).
        • Understand pain and symptom relief management.
        • Understand prognostication and hospice evaluation in various disease states.
        • Reflect on emotional and physical responses associated with various encounters on the elective, including, it is occurs, being with a dying patient. This can be shared with preceptor, M4 elective director, mentor, and/or someone the student feels safe with.
        MED 9590 Sleep Medicine
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Sleep medicine is a subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders. Disordered and disturbed sleep are associated with up to 1/3 of fatal motor vehicle fatalities as daytime sleepiness is a common symptom. Abnormal sleep can be associated as well as impact chronic medical conditions such as hypertension, obesity and mood disorders. Chronic obstructive sleep apnea, sleep deprivation, insomnias, narcolepsy, restless leg syndrome and hypersomnias may be treatable. Sleep Medicine is a multidisciplinary specialty and physicians who seek certification may be internists, pulmonologists, pediatricians, neurologists, or otolaryngologists.

        Offered: All weeks 

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, the student will be able to:

        • Describe the stages of sleep, including respiratory, musculoskeletal and neurologic features during each stage
        • Obstructive sleep apnea
        • Insomnias
        • Narcolepsy
        • Sleep deprivation
        MED 9610 Extended Care
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Description:

        Extended care facilities or nursing homes provide short-term nursing care and rehabilitation for adult patients following illness, injury or hospitalization. Many facilities also offer long-term care to patients with progressive chronic conditions such as dementia and neuromuscular diseases who are unable to live independently.

        Offered:  All weeks

        Objectives:
        • Obtain a thorough pertinent history and perform a complete relevant exam on new patients admitted to an extended care facility
        • Develop a working problem list and goals of care for an individual patient
        • Follow patients through their rehabilitation process and reflect on the emotional, cognitive, and physical challenges patients and clinicians face in achieving the goals of care
        • Spend time with various therapists (e.g., physical, occupational, speech) to learn and understand their role in patient rehabilitation
        MED 9620 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Description:

        Physical medicine and rehabilitation is a medical specialty where clinicians may have both an inpatient and outpatient practice. Their focus is on enhancing and restoring functional ability and quality of life to patients with various impairments or disabilities. Many patients who are cared for by a PM&R physician (aka physiatrist) have neurological disabilities such as brain injury (non-traumatic and traumatic), spinal cord, stroke, multiple sclerosis, polio, and other musculoskeletal problems. On this rotation, students will have the opportunity to care for patients in an inpatient setting. These settings are also referred to as “high intensity” rehabilitation settings in that a patient can expect to spend at least 3 hours per day participating in their rehabilitation. Physiatrists work as part of a multidisciplinary team to meet the needs of the “whole” patient in achieving maximal recovery.

        Offered:  All weeks

        Objectives:
        • Obtain a thorough pertinent history and perform a complete relevant exam on new patients admitted to a high intensity rehabilitation unit.
        • Develop a working problem list and goals of care for an individual patient.
        • Follow patients through their rehabilitation process and reflect on the emotional, cognitive, and physical challenges patients and clinicians face in achieving the goals of care.
        • Spend time with various therapists (e.g., physical, occupational, recreational, speech) to learn and understand their role in patient rehabilitation.
        MED 9710 Advanced Hospital Medicine
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advanced hospital clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume greater responsibility for patient care of the hospitalized patient, with oversight from supervising residents and attending physicians. Students expand upon competencies they develop during the third year as they care for one to two patients at a time. Additional expectations include responsibility for developing management plans, writing orders, patient handovers and transfers of care, recognizing the policies that support patient safety, and developing competency in procedures that they will perform independently as residents. Fourth year students also assist in teaching third year students.

        Hospital medicine is a growing professional track for internal medicine physicians. The Society for Hospital Medicine defines a hospitalist as a physician “who engages in clinical care, teaching, research, or leadership in the field of general hospital medicine. In addition to their core expertise managing the clinical problems of acutely ill, hospitalized patients, hospital medicine practitioners work to enhance the performance of hospitals and healthcare systems.” The M4 clerkship in hospital medicine exposes the student to the medical problems commonly seen in hospitalized adult patients and permits the student to have a greater role in the evaluation and management of these patients than they had during the M3 clerkship.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:
        • Recognize, evaluate and manage the presentations of common acute medical problems encountered in inpatient general internal medicine.
          • Abdominal pain
          • Acute gastrointestinal bleeding
          • Acute pulmonary edema
          • Acute renal failure/kidney injury
          • Altered mental status
          • Arrhythmias
          • Chest pain
          • Drug withdrawal
          • Electrolyte disorders
          • Fever
          • Glycemic control
          • Hypertensive emergencies
          • Nausea and vomiting
          • Pain management
          • Respiratory distress
          • Seizures
          • Sepsis
        • Obtain a complete history and physical appropriate to the patient’s presentation.
        • Develop complete problem lists with appropriate assessment and plan, including differential diagnosis and selection of appropriate diagnostic studies and management plans.
        • Develop professional and caring relationships with patients and families, including timely discussions regarding the patient’s illness, recommended testing, prognosis, and treatment options.
        • Use consultants when indicated.
        • Develop appropriate discharge planning and outpatient follow-up care, including communication with outpatient physicians, discharge planners, and community resources essential for transition home.
        • Accurately assess and make judgments regarding acuity of illness for determining necessity for hospital admission and for determining need for intensive care admission.
        • Determine appropriate patient monitoring, including cardiac monitoring, diabetic monitoring, fluid management, neurological assessments and vital signs.
        • Function as both a responsible referring physician and as a consultant in appropriate settings.
        • Know the indications and be able to interpret and act upon the results, in the context of individual patients, for common lab and imaging studies.
        • Use the electronic health record to review test results, physician and non-physician notes, document patient care and progress as well as beginning proficiency in writing admission, discharge orders, and daily orders.

        Advanced Clerkship Goals:

        1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
        2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills
        3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
        4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
        5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
        6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
        7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
        8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs, tests).
        9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
        10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
        11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
        12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
        13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
        14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
        15. Provide key aspects of the ideal handover to the recipient, including verbalizing the patient's illness severity and/or providing action planning and/or contingency planning.
        16. Demonstrates awareness of known threats to handover communication (e.g., interruptions and distractions) by paying attention to the timing and location of the handover communication.
        17. Acts as an active and integrate member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
        18. Understands the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
        19. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
        20. Adhere to institutional procedures and protocols regarding escalation of patient care.
        21. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
        22. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
        23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
          • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
          • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures
          • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
          • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
        24. Identify real potential errors.
        25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, hand washing).
        26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
        MED 9720 Advanced Ambulatory Medicine
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Olken
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advanced ambulatory clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume initial responsibility for the evaluation of patients in the ambulatory setting. Supervision will be provided by faculty preceptors in the academic setting as well as community private practices. Students expand upon competencies they developed during the third year as they team with residents and/or preceptors to provide preventive health services as well as acute and chronic illness management. The faster pace of ambulatory care provides an environment that strengthens patient and family communication skills, rapport development, and oral presentations. The use of evidence to inform treatment and counseling of patients and their caregivers are additional competencies that are highlighted in the outpatient setting.

        During this rotation, students will be assigned to a community internal medicine faculty preceptor at their practice site. Patients may be adults who have no health problems seeking care for acute, self-limited problems or may be wanting “a physical” or preventive health assessment. Or, patients may be adults with complex multiple medical problems, extensive medication lists who present with acute problems, follow-up care for chronic medical issues, and/or have preventive health tasks to be updated, as well. Thus, the entire spectrum of adult patients, aged 18+ may be encountered. Medical care that 20 years ago might have had to be delivered in the hospital setting is now managed and coordinated by a patient’s primary internist.

        Offered: All weeks (except block 7 which must be reviewed by Department Chair)

        Objectives:

        M4 Medicine Subinternships and Electives: Global Clinical Competencies (borrowed and adapted from the CDIM Internal Medicine Subinternship Curriculum)

        Communication learning objectives

        1. Knowledge. Subinterns and students on electives should demonstrate knowledge of:
          • Local and national ethical and legal guidelines governing patient confidentiality with specific attention to:
            • Written documentation in the EMR
            • Verbal communication with the patient’s family members and friends
          • Verbal and non-verbal clues of patient suicidality
          • Importance of cultural issues impacting health care decision making by patients
          • Identification of appropriate resources available in the inpatient and ambulatory (outpatient) setting for managing grief
        2. Skills. Subinterns should demonstrate the ability to:
          • Communicate effectively with patients and their family/friends (with whom the patient has given permission for the subintern to communicate with)
            • Utilize lay terms appropriate to the patient’s level of education, including explanation of scientific jargon
            • Recognize and manage denial and grief
            • Communicate abnormal results and “bad news” to patients in a sensitive manner
            • Discuss advanced directives and end of life issues with patients and their family members with attention to the patient’s wishes and needs
            • Provide concise daily updates for patients and families regarding hospital course and rationale for ongoing or new treatment plans (including new medications or discontinuation of previous medications), potential risks/benefits of proposed treatments, and discussion of anticipated discharge needs.
            • In the outpatient setting, discussing rationale and goals for monitoring/managing chronic disease conditions, including new medications and potential side effects, discontinuation of previous medications, and referrals to specialists for monitoring/managing and/or preventive health tasks appropriate for the patient’s age and health status.
          • Clearly summarize the patient’s reason for being brought into the hospital for observation status or inpatient admission status. AND the rationale for the clinical plan of care.
          • Assess suicidality in a depressed or psychotic patient
          • Be able to initiate a conversation with a patient about advanced directives
            • Inpatient setting, at time of admission, as well as on-going re-discussion as goals are defined and discussed during the hospital course
            • Outpatient setting when it is determined that the patient has not yet considered their end-of-life wishes or durable power of attorney for medical decision making
          • Demonstrate ability to clearly and concisely present oral and written summaries of patients to members of the health care team with attention to the inclusion of relevant information and synthesis of clinical information.
        3. Attitudes and professional behavior. Subinterns should demonstrate:
          • The ability to effectively communicate with physician and non-physician members of the health care team and consultants
          • Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of transitions of care by communication with the patient’s primary care physician (PCP) and the patient’s specialist physicians as they traverse their medical care between the inpatient and outpatient settings.
          • Seek to understand cultural sensitivities and patient wishes with regards to health care and incorporate this knowledge into discussions with the patient

        Coordination of Care Learning Objectives

        1. Knowledge. Subinterns demonstrate knowledge of:
          • How to contact members of the health care team, consultants and other hospital personnel
          • How to properly transfer care throughout a patient’s hospitalization including end of day and end of service coverage using strategies such as I-PASS, EHR hand-off tools, and transfer notes.
        2. Skills. Subinterns should be able to:
          • Appropriately utilize consultants
            • Identify a consultant’s role and limits of participation in the care of a patient
            • Request a consultation by identifying a specific question(s) to be addressed
            • Discuss a consultant’s recommendations with members of the health care team
          • Effectively cooperate with physician and non-physician members of the health care team including:
            • Nursing staff (RN, RN Care Managers)
            • Patient care associates
            • Advanced practice providers: physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs)
            • Medical social workers (MSW)
            • Therapists (occupational, physical and speech)
            • Pharmacists
            • Nutrition support staff
            • Discharge planners (MSW, RN Care Managers, outside liaisons from outside facilities/agencies such hospice care, skilled nursing facilities, long term acute care hospitals, and inpatient rehabilitation units)
          • Identify house staff on-call and cross-coverage schedules among house staff
          • Professionally and effectively request hospital operators to assist in making connections with other physicians/services potentially or currently involved in the care of the patient, as needed.
            • Recognize operators do not necessarily know the call schedules of individual physicians or practices
          • Communicate transfer of patient’s care responsibilities to other house staff. Depending on situation, this may involve verbal and/or written communication. Verbal may involve face-to-face vs via telephone conversation.
            • At end of shift (day or night)
            • Upon leaving service, at the direction of the preceptor/senior
            • Upon transfer of patient between services (such floor to ICU or ICU to floor)
          • Demonstrate proficiency in coordinating a comprehensive and longitudinal patient care plan
          • Communicate plan with PCP or specialist, arranging for follow-up when appropriate
          • Coordinate care plan utilizing community resources when necessary. This includes discussing community resources with patient at time of discharge for those resources which may not be “medical” (such as substance abuse programs, grief counseling, senior services, public library)

        Information Management Learning Objectives

        1. Knowledge. Subinterns should demonstrate knowledge of:
          • How to access the clinical information system (EHR) in use at their hospital or ambulatory setting
          • How “panic” or “critical” values are communicated from the hospital laboratory to the responsible intern
          • The necessity for a systematic method to track clinical/laboratory/radiologic data
            • Relevant for an acute hospital encounter
            • Relevant for longitudinal tracking in the ambulatory setting
          • Patient confidentiality regulations governing medical records and clinical information
        2. Skills. Subinterns should demonstrate the ability to:
          • Prioritize and systematically organize tasks for daily patient care to efficiently manage time as well as optimize patient care
          • Document the following in an organized and efficient manner, and per the guidelines by preceptor within the individual clinical setting:
            • Admission notes (floor and ICU)
            • Daily progress notes (floor and ICU)
            • Transfer notes (e.g., floor to ICU; ICU to floor)
            • Floor calls/clinical events/emergencies
            • Discharge summaries
            • Outpatient encounters
          • Review, reconcile, and document medication lists.
            • Upon admission, document an accurate home medication list utilizing HER information (and verifying compliance with patient), pharmacy information from patient, outside facility list (such as nursing home). Include over-the-counter products patient may be using. It is extremely important to document what the patient is actually taking and not presume the way a prescription is written is the manner the patient is taking.
            • Review inpatient medication administration reconciliation (MAR) daily to ensure medications that have been prescribed have been able to be administered.
            • Document variances within daily progress note.
            • Discharge medication reconciliation
              • Compare with home medications for changes
              • Document patient education on new medications or changes in home medication dosage/frequency in daily progress note or discharge summary
            • Medications and compliance should be reviewed at each outpatient encounter
          • Use paper, mobile apps, or electronic references to access evidence based medicine to solve clinical problems
        3. Attitudes and professional behaviors. Subinterns should demonstrate:
          • Respect for patient’s rights to confidentiality

        Procedures learning objectives

        1. Knowledge. Subinterns should be able to describe:
          • The indications, contraindications, risks and benefits of each of the following procedures:
            • Venipuncture
            • Intravenous catheter insertion: peripheral, central* (peripheral intravenous central catheter or PICC line; internal jugular central line; subclavian central line)
            • Arterial blood sampling
            • Nasogastric tube insertion
            • Lumbar puncture
            • Blood product transfusion
            • Urethral catheter insertion
            • [*Central line insertion competence is not expected of M4s, but indications, etc. should be known]
          • How the information obtained from these procedures will enhance the patient’s care
          • How to assess the patients’ competence to provide informed consent for a procedure
          • Potential procedure related risks to the operator and the need for universal precautions
        2. Skills. Subinterns should be able to:
          • Recognize clinical situations where one or more procedures are indicated
          • Effectively explain the rationale, risks and benefits for the procedure in language that is understandable by the patient or their representative
          • Obtain and document informed consent, if necessary
          • Recognize lack of skill or proficiency in performing one of the above procedures
          • Personally perform, with supervision, the above procedures
          • Write a procedure note
          • Ensure that samples obtained are properly prepared for laboratory processing (including orders on the EHR)
          • Teach procedures skills to third year medical students when appropriate
        3. Attitudes and professional behavior. Subinterns should demonstrate:
          • Respect for patient autonomy and the principles of informed consent
          • Concern for maximizing patient comfort
          • Commitment to learning how to perform procedures in an efficient and cost-effective manner
        4. Specific Hospital Internal Medicine Objectives
          • The student will be able to describe and define the following conditions frequently encountered in the adult outpatient setting. This includes the evidence-based guidelines for evaluation and management of common chronic problems, adult preventive health guidelines, and an awareness of the system issues inherent in coordinating patient care in the ambulatory environment.
            • Hypertension (blood pressure goals/control and monitoring for complications)
            • Diabetes (glycemic control and monitoring for complications)
            • Heart failure (evaluation of patient and evidence-based guideline adherence)
            • Hyperlipidemia
            • Skin cancers
            • Chronic pain management
            • Avoidance/evaluation of polypharmacy, particularly in elderly patients
            • Age-appropriate preventive health guidelines (cervical, breast and colon cancer screening, vaccinations, aortic aneurysm screening, tobacco cessation)

        Advanced Clerkship Goals:

        1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
        2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills.
        3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
        4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
        5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
        6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
        7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
        8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs tests).
        9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
        10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
        11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
        12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
        13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
        14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
        15. Act as an active and integrated member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
        16. understand the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
        17. Maintains a professional demeanor in all but the most trying of circumstances.
        18. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
        19. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
        20. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
        21. Provides complete information to patients and families.
        22. Avoids medical jargon in communicating with patients and families.
        23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
          • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
          • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures.
          • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
          • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
        24. Identify real and potential errors.
        25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, handwashing).
        26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
        MED 9810 Advanced Medicine Critical Care
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Wilt, Nichols
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This rotation offers students the opportunity to accelerate their learning by spending a four week block in the intensive care unit.  The rotation provides the student the opportunity to diagnose and treat of a wide range of clinical conditions common among critically ill patients. Students will enhance their knowledge and skill in caring for the sickest patients in the hospital.  The Clinical site utilized for the Pediatric Advanced Critical Care Clerkship is the pediatric ICU at Bronson Children’s Hospital.  Students will be paired with interns and residents, and will participate in the ICU in a dedicated fashion; the intent is for students to function as a “subintern” and will result in a high level learning experience. 

        Students will be expected to participate on rounds, will continue to perfect the gathering and synthesis of data, and expand on their ability to make diagnoses and develop care plans.  The student will be expected to gather a history based upon interview of patients/families, evaluate laboratory and radiographic material, and generate differential diagnoses and management plans.  They will also be expected to improve their documentation skills by writing patient notes in the electronic medical record.

        This is a 4 week block rotation, and will correspond to the calendar set forth by the Western Michigan University School of Medicine. This varies on the time of year and the rotation site. The medical ICU consists of patients with primarily medical diseases affecting the major organs.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        Hemodynamics/Cardiovascular System

        • Understand the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of shock
        • Understand the basics of hemodynamic monitoring and apply this to resuscitation medicine
        • Understand the basics of fluid resuscitation
        • Know indications for the use of vasoactive agents
        • Recognize and treat dysrhythmias
        • Understand the principles of managing cardiac arrest

        Pulmonary System

        • Recognize basic patterns on chest radiograph evaluation (ie infiltrate, effusion, pneumothorax)
        • Understand basic pulmonary physiology (shunt, V/Q mismatch, dead space)
        • Interpret arterial blood gases, and apply A-a gradient, P/F ratio
        • Understand the indications for intubation and mechanical ventilation
        • Understand the basics of mechanical ventilation and management
        • Understand spontaneous awakening trials and spontaneous breathing trials and apply these to liberation from mechanical ventilation
        • Recognize and treat pulmonary complications including pneumothorax, ARDS (including permissive hypercapnea), pneumonia, atelectasis, pulmonary embolism

        Gastrointestinal System

        • Diagnose and treat gastrointestinal hemorrhage
        • Diagnose and treat clostridium difficile colitis and its complications
        • Recognize and treat complication from congenital GI abnormalities
        • Evaluate and treat pancreatitis

        Neurologic System

        • Understand Cerebral Perfusion Pressure and its management
        • Diagnosis and treat acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke
        • Diagnose and treat subarachnoid hemorrhage
        • Diagnose and treat seizures including status epilepticus
        • Be familiar with brain death and its determination
        • Be familiar with sedation and analgesia and its effect on the CNS in the ICU

        Renal System

        • Understand, diagnose, and treat oliguria
        • Define and treat acute kidney injury
        • Know the indications for renal replacement therapy

        Metabolic System

        • Be familiar with, understand, and treat electrolyte disturbances
        • Manage hyperglycemia in the ICU
        • Understand, diagnose, and treat acid base disorders

        Hematologic System

        • Understand the indications for blood product transfusion in the ICU
        • Evaluate and treat anemia
        • Evaluate and treat abnormalities of coagulation
        • Understand principles of anticoagulation

        Endocrine System

        • Evaluate and treat abnormalities of the thyroid axis as it relates to critical illness
        • Evaluate and treat abnormalities of the adrenal gland as it relates to critical illness
        • Understand the principles of steroid replacement in the ICU

        Infectious Diseases and Sepsis

        • Understand source identification and control of infections
        • Understand the basics of antibiotic selection and subsequent stewardship
        • Define and treat sepsis and septic shock, including early goal-directed therapy, and resuscitation and support

        Advanced Clerkship Goals:

        • Recognize the severity of illness in patients with a variety critical illness.
        • Provide an extensive and complete assessment of the patient, including a complete history and physical examination, evaluation of laboratory data and radiographic material, synthesis of patient information, and generation of a comprehensive care plan.
        • Develop a rational evaluation and management plan for the stabilization and treatment of organ system dysfunction while evaluating and treating underlying etiologies.
        • Demonstrate competent use of technologic procedures and devices in the intensive care setting for the purposes of evaluating, monitoring, and managing patients.
        • Integrate imaging and other diagnostic studies in assessing the critically ill.
        • Effectively engage consultants and other ancillary care services in a team approach to manage critically ill patients.
        • Perform procedures necessary for the assessment and treatment of critically ill patients.
        • When indicated, address end of life decision making and advanced directives, and provide counseling for patients and their families.
        • Provide appropriate documentation of all patient interactions.
        MEDE 7510 Selected Topics in Medical Engineering
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MEDU 7510 Selected Topics in Medical Education - Section 8 Mentoring High School Students in a Summer Science Camp
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Dickson
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This is a one week elective where M1 and M2 medical students will have the opportunity to work with Kalamazoo Public High School Students who participated in the Early Introduction to Healthcare Careers-2 pipeline program. Medical Students will have the opportunity to help develop curriculum and facilitate teaching in anatomy, pharmacology, physiology in a hands-on, interactive approach to learning and teaching. The elective helps support partnership with community, working with students who are minority and underprivileged to help foster an interest in science and math and encourage them to pursue higher education.

        Objectives:
        • Creation of science curriculum with health science focus for high school students
        • Develop mentorship with high school students through facilitation of pipeline summer camp
        • Facilitate high school students’ success in completion of high school
        • Facilitate medical experiential activities in partnership with physicians and hospital staff
        MEDU 6701 Advances and Perspectives in Medicine and Health
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Vanden Heuvel
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This is an interprofessional seminar course for 0.5 credit per term (1 credit for the academic year). These sessions explore advances in biomedical and health sciences with translational applications to clinical medicine and the broad context of medicine in society.  Students attend a series of events that include a mixture of basic science seminars, clinical seminars, humanities lectures, workshops, plays, demonstrations, simulations, and conferences. Students submit a brief reflection for each event.

        Objectives:
        1. Gain an understanding of complex issues relevant to the health care professions.
        2. Gain awareness of cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams.
        3. Express individual attitudes, feelings, and beliefs related to issues relevant to the health care professions through reflective writing assignments.
        MEDU 6701 Advances and Perspectives in Medicine and Health
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Vanden Heuvel
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advances and Perspectives in Medicine and Health is an interdisciplinary seminar course for 0.5 credit per term (1 credit for the academic year). These sessions explore advances in biomedical and health sciences with translational applications to clinical medicine and the broad context of medicine in society.

        MEDU6700 is required of all graduate students in each year, including graduate students in dual-degree programs.  The course is also required for students who are required to repeat an entire year for any reason.  Students attend a minimum of ten events, which include a mixture of basic science seminars, clinical seminars, humanities and ethics seminars, workshops, plays, demonstrations, simulations, and conferences. Students submit a brief reflection for each event.

        Objectives:
        • Gain an understanding of complex issues relevant to the health care professions.
        • Gain awareness of cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams.
        • Express individual attitudes, feelings, and beliefs related to issues relevant to the health care professions through reflective writing assignments.
        MEDU 6710 Critical Analysis of Scientific Literature
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Minser, Costello
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This course continues for the entire academic year. Students learn to critically evaluate a recent article in the scientific literature pertinent to the current basic medical science course, including articles related to biomedical ethics. Under the guidance of a faculty member, students lead the discussion of articles chosen by the faculty member. The student learns to develop learning objectives to meet their own needs, becoming adept at active and self‑directed learning.

        Objectives:
        1. Explain key concepts of statistical literacy
        2. Develop basic scientific literature searching skills
        3. Critically assess scientific literature – with focus upon the reporting of: problem statement, relevance, review analysis, research design, methods analysis, quality control, and conclusions
        4. Develop the ability to assess applicability of scientific literature including current challenges in the field of basic science and potential clinical applicability
        5.  Create an engaging presentation developed from selected scientific literature
        MEDU 6710 Critical Analysis of Scientific Literature
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Costello
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students meet every other week to critically evaluate a recent article in the scientific literature pertinent to the current basic medical science course, including articles related to biomedical ethics. Under the guidance of a faculty member, students lead the discussion of articles chosen by the faculty member, or alternatively by the student. The student learns to develop learning objectives to meet their own needs, becoming adept at active learning.

        Objectives:
        • Explain key concepts of statistical literacy
        • Develop basic scientific literature searching skills
        • Critically assess scientific literature – with focus upon the reporting of: problem statement, relevance, review analysis, research design, methods analysis, quality control, and conclusions.
        • Develop the ability to assess applicability of scientific literature including current challenges in the field of basic science and potential clinical applicability
        • Create an engaging presentation developed from selected scientific literature
        MEDU 6720 Learning Strategies
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Milnes
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This course continues for the entire academic year and provides academic development and support that continues through the duration of the degree program. The course provides ongoing one‑on‑one and group instruction in time management, stress management, study skills, learning skills, test‑taking skills, information management and library skills, and personal assessment. Under the guidance of a learning skills specialist, students develop effective study skills, test‑taking strategies and test analysis, and active learning techniques. Students develop time management strategies, including recognizing and overcoming barriers to successful time management, and how to read and study more effectively and efficiently.  In addition to the formal instruction, the learning skills specialist regularly meets with students to monitor progress and provide feedback in a supportive environment.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

        1. Examine ways to optimize learning.
        2. Evaluate personal barriers regarding their own student success.
        3. Develop an effective learning system for academic success.
        MEDU 6720 Learning Strategies
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Milnes
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Learning Strategies is a year-long course that provides academic development and individualized support throughout the degree program. The course provides ongoing one-on-one and group instruction in time management, stress management, study skills, learning skills, test-taking skills, information management and library skills, and personal assessment. Under the guidance of a learning skills specialist, students develop effective study skills, test-taking strategies and test analysis, and active learning techniques. Students develop time management strategies, including recognizing and overcoming barriers to successful time management, and how to read and study more effectively and efficiently.  In addition to the formal instruction, the learning skills specialist meets with students weekly to monitor progress and provide feedback in a supportive environment.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

        1. Examine ways to optimize learning.
        2. Evaluate personal barriers regarding their own student success.
        3. Develop an effective learning system for academic success.
        MEDU 6801 Advances and Perspectives in Medicine (Year 1)
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Vanden Heuvel
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advances and Perspectives in Medicine and Health provides students in the professional health-related sciences both exposure to and an opportunity for involvement in current topics that influence the practice, quality, and delivery of health care. The course consists of a series of events that includes seminars, workshops, plays, demonstrations, simulations, and conferences that are distributed throughout the academic year. Topics covered in the series of events include ethics, professionalism, communication, health policy, health disparities, delivery of care, biomedical/translational/clinical/community-based research, bioengineering, business and legal aspects of health care, health informatics, and global health. For some events, there are opportunities to participate in interprofessional discussion groups that include students from other health profession programs, as well as health care professionals. Students develop critical thinking skills and raise awareness to cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams, through attendance and reflection of the events in this course.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

        1. Students gain an understanding of complex issues relevant to the health care professions.
        2. Students gain awareness of cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams.
        3. Students express their individual attitudes, feelings, and beliefs related to issues relevant to the health care professions through reflective writing assignments.
        MEDU 6802 Advances and Perspectives in Medicine (Year 2)
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Vanden Heuvel
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advances and Perspectives in Medicine and Health provides students in the professional health-related sciences both exposure to and an opportunity for involvement in current topics that influence the practice, quality, and delivery of health care. The course consists of a series of events that includes seminars, workshops, plays, demonstrations, simulations, and conferences that are distributed throughout the academic year. Topics covered in the series of events include ethics, professionalism, communication, health policy, health disparities, delivery of care, biomedical/translational/clinical/community-based research, bioengineering, business and legal aspects of health care, health informatics, and global health. For some events, there are opportunities to participate in interprofessional discussion groups that include students from other health profession programs, as well as health care professionals. Students develop critical thinking skills and raise awareness to cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams, through attendance and reflection of the events in this course.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

        1. Students gain an understanding of complex issues relevant to the health care professions.
        2. Students gain awareness of cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams.
        3. Students express their individual attitudes, feelings, and beliefs related to issues relevant to the health care professions through reflective writing assignments.
        MEDU 6803 Advances and Perspectives in Medicine (Year 3)
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Vanden Heuvel
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advances and Perspectives in Medicine and Health provides students in the professional health-related sciences both exposure to and an opportunity for involvement in current topics that influence the practice, quality, and delivery of health care. The course consists of a series of events that includes seminars, workshops, plays, demonstrations, simulations, and conferences that are distributed throughout the academic year. Topics covered in the series of events include ethics, professionalism, communication, health policy, health disparities, delivery of care, biomedical/translational/clinical/community-based research, bioengineering, business and legal aspects of health care, health informatics, and global health. For some events, there are opportunities to participate in interprofessional discussion groups that include students from other health profession programs, as well as health care professionals. Students develop critical thinking skills and raise awareness to cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams, through attendance and reflection of the events in this course.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

        1. Students gain an understanding of complex issues relevant to the health care professions.
        2. Students gain awareness of cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams.
        3. Students express their individual attitudes, feelings, and beliefs related to issues relevant to the health care professions through reflective writing assignments.
        MEDU 6804 Advances and Perspectives in Medicine (Year 4)
        Credits:
        1
        Directors:
        Vanden Heuvel
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advances and Perspectives in Medicine and Health provides students in the professional health-related sciences both exposure to and an opportunity for involvement in current topics that influence the practice, quality, and delivery of health care. The course consists of a series of events that includes seminars, workshops, plays, demonstrations, simulations, and conferences that are distributed throughout the academic year. Topics covered in the series of events include ethics, professionalism, communication, health policy, health disparities, delivery of care, biomedical/translational/clinical/community-based research, bioengineering, business and legal aspects of health care, health informatics, and global health. For some events, there are opportunities to participate in interprofessional discussion groups that include students from other health profession programs, as well as health care professionals. Students develop critical thinking skills and raise awareness to cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams, through attendance and reflection of the events in this course.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

        1. Students gain an understanding of complex issues relevant to the health care professions.
        2. Students gain awareness of cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams.
        3. Students express their individual attitudes, feelings, and beliefs related to issues relevant to the health care professions through reflective writing assignments.
        MEDU 7510 Selected Topics in Medical Education - Section 1 The Medical Career
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Graves
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work with medical educators to understand what is involved in a variety of career paths for new physicians, including academic medicine. In addition to discussion with faculty members, students will read books and articles on medical careers and interview three physicians on three different career paths. When feasible, students will shadwo physicians engaged in varied career paths. On completion of this elective, students will be able to describe possible choices for their own careers. Total time expectation will be 25-30 hours per week.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this elective, the student will be able to:

        1. Discuss the variety of career paths for new physicians
        2. Compare the variety of career paths available
        3. Explain advantages and disadvantages of career paths based on interview with three physicians
        MEDU 7510 Selected Topics in Medical Education - Section 2 Teaching & Learning in Medical School
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Crooks
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work with medical educators to understand how medical students learn and how different styles of teaching enable or detract from student learning. In addition to discussion with faculty members, students will read books and articles on learning and teaching styles and will design a teaching module in a subject of their choice. On completion of this elective, students will be able to design a teaching module from objectives to assessment. Total time expectation will be 25-30 hours per week.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

        1. Explain the meaning of a systematic approach to instruction
        2. Describe the importance and essential elements of a needs assessment
        3. Write an instructional aim
        4. Write instructional goals that align with an instructional aim
        5. Conduct task and topic analyses of instructional goals
        6. Write performance objectives based on task and topic analyses.
        7. Develop assessment instruments aligned with performance objectives
        8. Develop instructional strategies for objectives based on curent research in cognitive science
        9. Develop instructional materials based on research-based principles in instructional message design
        10. Develop formative and summative evaluation plans
        MEDU 7510 Selected Topics in Medical Education - Section 3 Educational Research – The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Graves
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work with medical educators to design or implement a research project on the impact of teaching strategies on medical student learning. In addition to discussion with faculty members, students will read a variety of books and articles on educational research design and propose a study based on their own interests. On completion of this elective, students will be able to propose an educational research project. Interested students will be supported to participate in medical education research. Total time expectation will be 20-25 hours per week.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

        1. Discuss elements of educational research design
        2. Discuss differenes and similarities between medical education research and clinical research
        3. Propose an education research project based on student's interests
        MEDU 7510 Selected Topics in Medical Education - Section 4 Massage Therapy Elective – An Overview and Experience
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Bibik
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This course will provide an overview of massage therapy. Students will learn about the benefits of massage therapy as well as therapeutic massage techniques. Massage techniques will be demonstrated, practiced, and received by students. Through this approach, students will understand and experience the benefits and importance of therapy for their own health as well as for their patients.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Understand the importance of self-care for physicians and patient well-being
        • Understand and experience the benefits of massage therapy
        • Understand the broad spectrum of benefits of massage therapy in the management of stress and promotion of health/wellness
        • Understand and demonstrate effective and safe preparation of massage equipment
        • Understand and demonstrate effective and appropriate preparation prior to giving a massage, draping techniques, and full-body relaxation massage
        MEDU 7510 Selected Topics in Medical Education - Section 5 Animated Presentations in Medical Education
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        McKinney
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work alongside Medical Education faculty and staff to produce a focused animated presentation to be used in preclinical medical education. Students will attend instructional meetings and work independently. Total time expectations will be 25-30 hours per week.

        Objectives: Upon completion of the elective the student should develop a basic animated presentation to explain a med-biological process.

        Reading: Students will be exposed to a variety of options available to produce animated presentations, and read on the benefit of using animation for learning. Reading and video sources will include selections from the tentative references listed below.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Analyze the components of a bio-medical concept
        • Create a storyboard with script of the steps involved in a selected bio-medical process
        • Develop a 5 to 10 minute animated presentation of a med-biological process
        MEDU 7510 Selected Topics in Medical Education - Section 6 Self-Care and Wellness for the Medical Student
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Milnes
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This is an experiential class introducing students to a holistic wellness approach based on various self-care and stress reduction techniques that can be incorporated into a personal wellness plan. Self-care and stress reduction techniques help reduce career burnout, support injury prevention and maintain health in medical students. Students will be guided through physical, behavioral, and mental techniques to enhance a general self-care and wellness personal plan. Topics such as stress, sleep, nutrition, meditation, and massage will be discussed.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Identify personal stressors
        • Identify self-care activities to maintain health
        • Implement stress management tools
        • Create a personal wellness plan
        MEDU 7520 Medical Spanish - Section 9 Beginning Medical Spanish with Canopy Learn, Levels I & II
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Elizabeth R. Lorbeer
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Canopy Learn, the Canopy Medical Spanish training course teaches English-speaking providers the skills needed to communicate effectively with Spanish-speaking patients. With a modular lesson design, this elective can be taken at your own pace. Relecant for all proficiency levels: with progressive course levels, it's appropriate for beginners who have little or no prior knowledge of Spanish. Each level is a 12-hour commitment. Reading, writing, listening, and speaking exercises provide learners a diverse, interactive blend of activities that emulate language learning with a tutor. There is a custom written and produced Telenovela focus on the most common practitioner-patient interactions, demonstrating the factual context in which medical Spanish is used.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Build linguistic capacity, enabling the student to build rapport with Spanish-speaking patients better to provide efficient and compassionate care.
        • Acquire specialized medical vocabulary across a broad spectrum of commonly-ecncoutered medical scenarios.
        • Gain a deepened awareness of the cultural diversity found in the Spanish-speaking world in addition to an appreciation for the necessity of heightened cultural sensitivity.
        MEDU 9210 Medical Education Research
        Credits:
        4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        McKinney
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work with a medical educator to understand the research process. In addition to discussions with faculty members, students will read books and articles on a research topic of their choice and design a research plan.  The students will present their research to the Medical Education Department for approval. Once approved, the students will execute and complete the research.

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Formulate an original, high-quality research question and hypothesis
        • Apply knowledge of research to answer an original research question
        • Employ appropriate research methods to gather and analyze data
        MEDU 9220 Selected Topics in Medical Education
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        McKinney
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Student will propose and research a topic of their choice related to physicians as educators under the guidance of a medical educator. In addition to discussions with faculty members, students will read books and articles on their topic and design a teaching module on the subject of choice and medical education research. On completion of this elective, students will be able to design a teaching module from objectives to assessment.

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        1. Identify a health issue community members need information about
        2. Develop a teaching module to educate community members on the health issue
        3. Develop an appropriate method to assess change(s) in knowledge, skill or behavior by community members on a health issue
        MEDU 9220 Selected Topics in Medical Education - Section 1 Admissions Research
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Dr. Vandre
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This elective is designed to spend time researching and looking for data correlations within the admissions process. This elective is only available on a case by case basis.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        1. Create reports regarding attribute measures (online assessment, phone interview, or on campus interviews)
        2. Review admissions data and draw correlations to improve selection and admissions process
        3. Make a contribution to the admissions and selection process for future cycles
        4. Make a recommendation for norming 1:1 interview scores and structured interview questions
        MEDU 9410 Doctors as Teachers: Community Education
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        McKinney
        Description:

        Section 1: Doctors as Teachers: Community Education – (2-4 weeks) Students will work with medical educators to understand how adults learn. In addition to discussions with faculty members, students will read books and articles on learning and teaching styles and with a team design a teaching module on a community health concern topic of their choice.  The team will present the module during a scheduled community event. On completion of this elective, students will be able to design a teaching module from objectives to assessment.

        Offered: Not offered October thru April

         

        Objectives:

        Section 1.

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        1. Identify a community health issue
        2. Apply knowledge of research to develop material to educate the community on a health issue
        3. Present community members with educational materials on a health concern
        MEDU 9410 Doctors as Teachers: Community Education
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        McKinney
        Description:

        Section 2: Doctors as Teachers: Student Clinic – (4-8 weeks) Students will work on a team under the guidance of medical educators to learn about operating and staffing a community clinic. Students will learn about community health needs and how to educate community members as health care is delivered. In addition to discussions with faculty members, students will read books and articles on community clinic operation and patient education.  The student will use the knowledge to educate patients as they provide care in a student clinic on Saturday mornings.

        Offered: Not offered October thru April

        Objectives:

        Section 2.

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        1. Apply knowledge of research to educate the community of the health issue
        2. Identify methods of educating patients during an office visit
        3. Practice educating patients as care is provided in a student clinic
        MEDU 9410 Doctors as Teachers: Community Education
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        McKinney
        Description:

         

        Section 3: Doctors as Teachers: Independent Study – (2-4 weeks) Student will propose and research a topic of their choice related to physicians as educators under the guidance of a medical educator. In addition to discussions with faculty members, students will read books and articles on their topic and design a teaching module on the subject of choice and medical education research. On completion of this elective, students will be able to design a teaching module from objectives to assessment.

        Offered: Not offered October thru April

        Objectives:

        Section 3.

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        1. Identify a health issue community members need information about
        2. Develop a teaching module to educate community members on the health issue
        3. Develop an appropriate method to assess change(s) in knowledge, skill or behavior by community members on a health issue
        MEDU 9410 Medical Simulation
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Lammers
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This elective is designed for medical students who are considering academic careers in medicine. Students will learn principles of experiential learning by developing simulation-based educational exercises. They will gain knowledge of and experience with simulation as an educational tool by reading selected textbook chapters and journal articles, assisting faculty in running simulation exercises, developing an immersive case simulation, observing and critiquing a debriefing session, and creating a procedure assessment tool. Students will observe simulations designed to teach or assess cognitive, technical, communication, and teamwork skills.

        This two-week elective will be held primarily in the Simulation Centers at Western Michigan University School of Medicine and Borgess Medical Center. Students will work predominately with Dr. Lammers and the Simulation Center staff, but they will also interface with residents and faculty who are working on simulation projects.

        Offered: must start by mid-October and end before mid-December

         

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, students will be able to:

        1. List six assumptions about adult learners that should guide curriculum development.
        2. List five advantages of medical simulation over bedside clinical teaching in the education of medical students and resident physicians.
        3. Describe simulation exercises that use the artificial representation of a person, a situation, an environment, and an event to provide learning experiences.
        4. Develop a simple, simulation-based exercise that incorporates the four stages of Kolb’s experiential learning model.
        5. Develop, program, and pilot-test a 5-10 minute case-based simulation that teaches one or more of the following: clinical reasoning, medical decision-making, communication, or teamwork skills.
        6. Explain how to use reflective practice techniques in post-scenario debriefing sessions.
        7. Create a performance checklist to assess a procedural (technical) skill.
        MEDU 9412 Doctors as Teachers: Independent Study
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        McKinney
        Description:

        Student will propose and research a topic of their choice related to physicians as educators under the guidance of a medical educator. In addition to discussions with faculty members, students will read books and articles on their topic and design a teaching module on the subject of choice and medical education research. On completion of this elective, students will be able to design a teaching module from objectives to assessment.

        Objectives:

        ·         Identify a health issue community members need information about

        ·         Develop a teaching module to educate community members on the health issue

        ·         Develop an appropriate method to assess change(s) in knowledge, skill or behavior by community members on a health issue

        MEDU 9420 Medical Simulation
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Lammers
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This elective is designed for medical students who are considering academic careers in medicine. Students will learn principles of experiential learning by developing simulation-based educational exercises. They will gain knowledge of and experience with simulation as an educational tool by reading selected textbook chapters and journal articles, assisting faculty in running simulation exercises, developing an immersive case simulation, observing and critiquing a debriefing session, and creating a procedure assessment tool. Students will observe simulations designed to teach or assess cognitive, technical, communication, and teamwork skills.

        This two-week elective will be held primarily in the Simulation Centers at Western Michigan University School of Medicine and Borgess Medical Center. Students will work predominately with Dr. Lammers and the Simulation Center staff, but they will also interface with residents and faculty who are working on simulation projects.

        Offered: One two-week block only.  Must start by mid-October and end before mid-December.  Not offered January thru September

        Objectives:
        • List six assumptions about adult learners that should guide curriculum development.
        • List five advantages of medical simulation over bedside clinical teaching in the education of medical students and resident physicians.
        • Describe simulation exercises that use the artificial representation of a person, a situation, an environment, and an event to provide learning experiences.
        • Develop a simple, simulation-based exercise that incorporates the four stages of Kolb’s experiential learning model.
        • Develop, program, and pilot-test a 5-10 minute case-based simulation that teaches one or more of the following: clinical reasoning, medical decision-making, communication, or teamwork skills.
        • Explain how to use reflective practice techniques in post-scenario debriefing sessions.
        • Create a performance checklist to assess a procedural (technical) skill.
        MEHL 7510 Selected Topics in Medical Ethics
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MEHL 7511 Selected Topics in Medical Humanities
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MEHL 7512 Selected Topics in Health Law
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Determined by the student and faculty member.

        MEHL 9210 Medical Ethics Research
        Credits:
        4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MEHL 9211 Medical Humanities Research
        Credits:
        4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MEHL 9212 Health Law Research
        Credits:
        4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MEHL 9220 Selected Topics in Medical Ethics
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MEHL 9221 Selected Topics in Medical Humanities
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MEHL 9222 Selected Topics in Health Law
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        MEHL 9410 Clinical Ethics Consultation and Committees
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Gibb
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        A theoretical understanding of ethical principles relating to health care is essential for all physicians. However, the application of these principles to actual situations of ethical conflict requires a different type of educational experience. In this course, the students will work closely with WMed clinical ethicists as they conduct ethics consultations, engage in ethical research and analysis, meet with patients and teams, and work with hospital ethics committees.

        Objectives:
        1. Meaningfully and respectfully engage in discussions about ethically complex issues and cases in the practice of medicine.
        2. Understand the history of clinical ethics consultations and the various methods of ethics consultation.
        3. Discussion ethical conflicts that arise in the practice of medicine, including but are not limited to:
          • Informed Consent and Informed Refusal
          • Decision-Making Capacity
          • Surrogate Decision-Makers
          • Non-Beneficial Treatment (Medical Futility)
          • Organizational Ethics
          • Autonomy and Professional Duties
        4. Apply the “4-Topics Approach” of case analysis in ethical conflicts in the clinical setting.
        5. Discuss and appropriately utilize the AMA Principles of Medical Ethics with Annotations.
        6. Understand and strive to embody the ideals of a virtuous physician, including but not limited to: altruism, compassion, empathy, trustworthiness, honesty, integrity, solidarity, and devotion to their patients.
        MEHL 9420 Psychiatry Ethics
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Redinger
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This selective course is designed for students who are interested in psychiatric ethics.  This may be due to an interest in either advanced application of medical ethics or psychiatry as a medical specialty.  As a specialty, psychiatry frequently encounters ethical dilemmas.  Some of these are shared with other medical specialties while others are unique to psychiatric practice because of the nature of mental illness. Students interested in taking this selective should be prepared to respectfully engage in challenging discussions about the ethical care of psychiatric patients.

        The course will consist of two components.  Part of the rotation will be spent observing the ways in which involuntary treatment proceedings occur throughout the community, including adult and juvenile drug and mental health courts and involuntary treatment hearings on the Borgess Inpatient Psychiatric Unit.  Additionally, there will be directed readings and small group discussion discussing ethical issues relevant to psychiatry and doing ethical case analysis.  Students will need to prepare before class by completing assigned readings and individual activities (or tasks) in order to participate in class.  The first day of the elective will discuss the mechanics of the course, expectations, and general overview of the topic.  Finally, the students will be expected to complete a capstone project on a topic relevant to psychiatric ethics.

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        1. Meaningfully and respectfully engage in discussions about ethically complex issues and cases in the practice of psychiatry.
        2. Understand the history of psychiatry ethics.
        3. Discuss ethical conflicts that arise in the practice of psychiatry, including those common to other specialties as well as those unique to the practice of psychiatry.These include:
          • Boundary and Dual Relationship Issues
          • Confidentiality and Truth-Telling
          • Determination of Decision-Making Capacity and Informed Consent
          • Involuntary Treatment
          • Ethical Issues Relating to Special Psychiatric Populations
          • Ethical Issues Relating to the Practice of Psychiatric
          • Religion and Psychiatry
          • The History of the Relationship between Psychiatry and the Pharmaceutical Industry
          • The Involvement of Psychiatry in Human Rights Violations
        4. Apply the “4-Topics Approach” of case analysis in ethical conflicts in the psychiatric setting.
        5. Discuss and appropriately utilize the APA Principles of Medical Ethics with Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and other sources of ethical guidance available to psychiatrists.
        6. Understand and strive to embody the ideals of a virtuous psychiatrist, including but not limited to: altruism, compassion, empathy, trustworthiness, honesty, integrity, solidarity, and devotion to their patients.
        OBGY 7510 Selected Topics in Obstetrics and Gynecology - Section 1 General Obstetrics and Gynecology
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        McGhee, Rebar, Taubel
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work alongside departmental faculty and supervising residents caring for patients in Bronson or Borgess Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Time expected is no more than 30 hours per week.

        Offered: case by case basis

        Objectives:
        • Describe the specialty of Obstetrics and Gynecology
        • Discuss current issues faced by women’s health care providers
        • Discuss common patient conditions in obstetrics and gynecology
        • Discuss common procedures in obstetrics and gynecology
        OBGY 8110 Women’s Health
        Credits:
        8
        Directors:
        McGhee
        Grading:
        Honors/Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The Women’s Health Year 3 Clerkship is intended to be a comprehensive, challenging, and rewarding experience addressing essential clinical aspects of obstetrics and gynecology organized in an eight week block.  The Preparatory Week includes a variety of activities to assure success during the subsequent clinical component.  The six-week Clinical Experience affords students a wide range of clinical opportunities to develop the requisite knowledge and skills in Women’s Health.  The final eighth postweek is designed to crystalize principles to accomplish oral and written components for evaluation. 

        The following components make up the Clinical Experience:

        OB/Gyn Preceptorship – 3 weeks

        Maternal & Fetal Medicine (Bronson) –  1 week 
(6 days)

        Labor and Delivery (Night Float) –  1 week 
(5 nights)

        Gynecologic Surgery –  1 week (5 days)

        During the Clinical Experience weeks, students will be expected to complete Independent Study modules covering various topics relating to the particular clinical component.  The Summative and Assessment week is intended to review and synthesize essential clinical concepts, review and assess important clinical skills, and prepare for and successfully complete the NBME Shelf Exam.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of the Women's Health Clerkship, the third year student shall be able to:

        • Discuss how women’s reproductive function impacts all of health and disease, including how other diseases impact reproductive function in women.
        • Develop competence in the medical interview and physical examination of women, incorporating ethical, social and diversity perspectives to provide culturally competent health care.
        • Apply recommended prevention strategies to women throughout the lifespan.
        • Explain the normal physiologic changes of pregnancy including interpretation of common diagnostic studies.
        • Describe common problems in obstetrics.
        • Demonstrate knowledge of intrapartum care of the mother and newborn.
        • Demonstrate knowledge of postpartum care.
        • Describe menstrual cycle physiology, discuss puberty and menopause and explain normal and abnormal bleeding.
        • Describe the etiology and evaluation of infertility.
        • Develop in-depth knowledge of contraception, including sterilization and abortion.
        • Demonstrate knowledge of common benign gynecological conditions.
        • Formulate a differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen and chronic pelvic pain.
        • Describe common breast conditions and outline the evaluation of breast complaints.
        • Demonstrate knowledge of perioperative care and familiarity with gynecological procedures.
        • Describe gynecological malignancies including risk factors, signs and symptoms and initial evaluation.
        • Provide a preliminary assessment of patients with sexual concerns.
        • Discuss common ethical issues that arise in the provision of reproductive health care to women.
        • Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism and medical ethics in all patient encounters.
        • Demonstrate professional behaviors when interacting with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals).

         

        *Adapted from the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

        OBGY 8110 Women's Health
        Credits:
        8
        Directors:
        McGhee, Linares
        Grading:
        Honors/High Pass/Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The Women’s Health Year 3 Clerkship is intended to be a comprehensive, challenging, and rewarding experience addressing essential clinical aspects of obstetrics and gynecology.  The Preparatory Week includes a variety of activities to assure success during the subsequent clinical component.  The six-week Clinical Experience affords students a wide range of clinical opportunities to develop the requisite knowledge and skills in Women’s Health.  The Assessment Week, is designed to crystalize principles to accomplish oral and written components for evaluation.  The following components make up the Clinical Experience: 3 weeks of OB/Gyn Preceptorship, 1 week (6 days) of Maternal and Fetal Medicine (Bronson), 1 week (5 nights) Labor and Delivery (Night Float), and 1 week (5 days) Gynecologic Surgery and/or Gynecology. During the Clinical Experience weeks, students will be expected to complete Independent Study modules covering various topics relating to the particular clinical component.  The Summative and Assessment week is intended to review and synthesize essential clinical concepts, review and assess important clinical skills, and prepare for and successfully complete the NBME Shelf Exam.

        Objectives:
        • Discuss how women’s reproductive function impacts all of health and disease, including how other diseases impact reproductive function in women.
        • Develop competence in the medical interview and physical examination of women, incorporating ethical, social and diversity perspectives to provide culturally competent health care.
        • Apply recommended prevention strategies to women throughout the lifespan.
        • Explain the normal physiologic changes of pregnancy including interpretation of common diagnostic studies.
        • Describe common problems in obstetrics.
        • Demonstrate knowledge of intrapartum care of the mother and newborn.
        • Demonstrate knowledge of postpartum care.
        • Describe menstrual cycle physiology, discuss puberty and menopause and explain normal and abnormal bleeding.
        • Describe the etiology and evaluation of infertility.
        • Develop in-depth knowledge of contraception, including sterilization and abortion.
        • Demonstrate knowledge of common benign gynecological conditions.
        • Formulate a differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen and chronic pelvic pain.
        • Describe common breast conditions and outline the evaluation of breast complaints.
        • Demonstrate knowledge of perioperative care and familiarity with gynecological procedures.
        • Describe gynecological malignancies including risk factors, signs and symptoms and initial evaluation.
        • Provide a preliminary assessment of patients with sexual concerns.
        • Discuss common ethical issues that arise in the provision of reproductive health care to women.
        • Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism and medical ethics in all patient encounters.
        • Demonstrate professional behaviors when interacting with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals).

        *  Adapted from the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

        OBGY 9210 Obstetrics and Gynecology Research
        Credits:
        4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        OBGY 9220 Selected Topics in Obstetrics and Gynecology
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.Determined by the student and faculty member.

        OBGY 9420 Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Dodds, Young, Shavell
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This elective is designed for 4th year medical students interested in pursuing Obstetrics and Gynecology. It is particularly relevant for students who may wish to consider subspecialty training in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (REI). This elective will allow the student to focus on REI problems exploring in depth the diagnostic evaluation and treatment approaches to those problems. The course will involve one-on-one patient care with our Reproductive Endocrinologists. In addition, the student will spend a brief time in the andrology, endocrine, and in vitro fertilization laboratories to provide a better understanding of laboratory contribution to diagnosis and treatment. Students will also participate in pelvic ultrasound and surgical care of patients. Didactic training from the Reproductive Endocrinologists will be given. Students will prepare a presentation on a clinical topic or an interesting case and present it at the end of the elective.

        Offered:  Not offered week of Christmas

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Knowledge of menstrual cycle physiology to understand the basis of ovulation, abnormal bleeding, polycystic ovary disease, and an ovulatory infertility issues.
        • Demonstrate an understanding of the common causes of infertility and how to use evidence based medicine to develop a plan for further evaluation and treatment.
        • Understand and discuss the risks and benefits of advanced reproductive technologies including in vitro fertilization, preimplantation genetic testing, donor oocyte, donor embryo, gestational carrier, and gamete and embryo cryopreservation for fertility preservation.
        • Improve patient history & physical presentation skills.
        OBGY 9430 Gynecologic Oncology
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Hoekstra, Mize
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This clerkship is designed for fourth-year medical students interested in pursuing Obstetrics and Gynecology residency training, and is particularly relevant for students considering subspecialty training in gynecologic oncology or minimally invasive surgery. This clerkship allows the student to focus on gynecologic oncology problems, with in-depth exploration of the diagnostic evaluation and treatment approaches through one-on-one patient care with our oncologists. Students participate in inpatient, ambulatory, and surgical care of patients through didactic and bedside teaching. Students prepare a presentation on a clinical topic or case, with the presentation at the end of the clerkship.

        Objectives:

        After completion of this clerkship, each student will be able to:

        1. List the current strategies and criteria for staging gynecologic cancer and the prognostic implications of staging.
        2. Describe the current standards for treatment of gynecologic cancers including surgical, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. List the common adverse effects and limitations of common treatent regimens.
        3. Describe the standards of treatment for neoplastic and pre-malignant conditions that are treated by gynecologic oncologists (eg, molar pregnancy, endometrial hyperplasia with atypia, low malignant potential ovarian lesions)
        4. Prepare a specialty-focused history and physical examination for admission or new patient note, with appropriate attention to previous conditions. List the key aspects of a complete exam that would be performed by a gynecologic oncologist.
        OBGY 9460 Labor and Delivery
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        McGhee
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This elective is designed for 4th year medical students interested in pursuing Obstetrics and Gynecology. This elective will allow the student to explore the ins and outs of labor and delivery and give them the opportunity to manage patients in labor. The course will involve one-on-one patient care with Certified Nurse midwives as well as OBGYN physicians. In addition, the student will spend time in triage. Students will also be part of the surgical team for patients who required surgery. Didactic training from the attending physicians in labor and delivery will be given. Students will prepare a presentation on a clinical topic or an interesting case and present it at the end of the elective.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        1. Have knowledge of normal pregnancy, labor and management of labor, delivery and immediate postpartum complications.
        2. Demonstrate an understanding of the most common antepartum conditions: Diabetes (gestational and pre-gestational), hypertension (pre-existent and pregnancy induced hypertension).
        3. Have basic knowledge of multiple pregnancies specially twin pregnancies.
        4. Understand and discuss the risks and benefits of antepartum and intra-partum fetal monitoring.
        5. Improve patient history & physical presentation skills and perform accurate cervical exams.
        ORTH 7510 Selected Topics in Orthopaedic Surgery
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        ORTH 9210 Orthopaedic Surgery Research
        Credits:
        4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        ORTH 9220 Selected Topics in Orthopaedic Surgery
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        ORTH 9410 Non-operative Orthopaedics
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Bovid
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Designed for the 4th year medical student that has a strong interest in the musculoskeletal system and is not pursuing a career in orthopaedic surgery.  This course will emphasize orthopaedic outpatient clinics.  Students will not be required but will have opportunities to be in the operating room and/or take evening call.  Students will work closely with assigned faculty members that are fellowship trained in different subspecialties of orthopaedic surgery.   Students will learn musculoskeletal history taking skills, the details of a musculoskeletal physical examination, interpretation of radiographs and advanced imaging techniques, treatment options with an emphasis of when to refer to an orthopaedic surgeon. There will be a lectureship series given by the faculty.

        Offered:  All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Apply advanced fundamental knowledge in musculoskeletal gross anatomy to physical examination techniques.
        • Demonstrate understanding in the basic science of soft tissue healing, fracture healing, tendinopathies, arthropathies, meniscal, ligament and tendon injury, and joint biomechanics and apply this knowledge to patient care.
        • Develop advanced knowledge of common musculoskeletal complaints and diseases that present to the orthopaedic surgeon and use critical thinking to apply this in patient care.
        • Gather essential and accurate information in a thorough musculoskeletal-focused history.
        • Perform an appropriate musculoskeletal physical examination to include the spine and extremities.
        • Interpret common plain film radiographs at a beginning level.
        • Demonstrate professionalism and effective communication skills in patient care and interactions with other members of the health care team.
        ORTH 9420 Enhanced Musculoskeletal Anatomy
        Credits:
        4
        Directors:
        Lackey, Bovid
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Designed for the 4th year medical student with a potentially strong interest in pursuing orthopaedic surgery or other field focused on the musculoskeletal system as a career. This elective will allow students to revisit and delve deeper into extremity anatomy with a focus on surgical approaches and relevance to clinical practice. The course would be in the anatomy lab with guidance from both anatomy faculty and orthopaedic surgical faculty. The course will include dissection, hands on learning from the cadavers in the lab including practicing surgical approaches, didactics, and time for students to prepare a presentation on a clinically important anatomic topic to give at the end of the course.

        Offered:  One four-week block per M4 Year

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Apply advanced fundamental knowledge in musculoskeletal gross anatomy to physical examination, surgical approaches and techniques.
        • Demonstrate understanding in the basic science of soft tissue healing, fracture healing, tendinopathies, arthropathies, meniscal, ligament and tendon injury, and joint biomechanics and apply this knowledge to patient care.
        • Develop advanced knowledge of critical structures at risk during surgical treatment and use critical thinking to apply this in patient care.
        • Identify strengths and deficiencies in their own musculoskeletal anatomy knowledge and seek out and perform learning activities to address gaps in knowledge.
        • Communicate effectively and improve presentation skills.
        ORTH 9710 Advanced Orthopaedic Surgery
        Credits:
        4
        Directors:
        Lackey, Bovid
        Grading:
        Honors/Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advanced hospital clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume greater responsibility for patient care of the hospitalized patient, with oversight from supervising residents and attending physicians. Students expand upon competencies they develop during the third year as they care for one to two patients at a time. Additional expectations include responsibility for developing management plans, writing orders, patient handovers and transfers of care, recognizing the policies that support patient safety, and developing competency in procedures that they will perform independently as residents. Fourth year students also assist in teaching third year students.

        Designed for the 4th year medical student with a potentially strong interest in pursuing orthopaedic surgery as a career. Patient care involvement will be both in the outpatient clinics and operating room. There will also be opportunities to be involved with emergency department and in-patient consultations.  Students will be required to take evening call and will be paired with a resident. Students will have opportunities to work with a variety of faculty that are fellowship trained in the different subspecialties of orthopaedic surgery. There will also be opportunities to work closely with orthopaedic residents. Students will learn musculoskeletal history taking skills, the details of a musculoskeletal physical examination, interpretation of radiographs and advanced imaging techniques, treatment options including both nonoperative and operative management, surgical approaches to include both soft tissue and bone handling techniques, and implant specifics. There will be a lectureship series for students given by the faculty. A fundamental knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy will be important. 

        Offered:  All weeks

        Objectives:
        • Apply advanced fundamental knowledge in musculoskeletal gross anatomy to physical examination, surgical approaches and techniques.
        • Demonstrate understanding in the basic science of soft tissue healing, fracture healing, tendinopathies, arthropathies, meniscal, ligament and tendon injury, and joint biomechanics and apply this knowledge to patient care.
        • Develop advanced knowledge of common musculoskeletal complaints and diseases that present to the orthopaedic surgeon and use critical thinking to apply this in patient care.
        • Gather essential and accurate information in a thorough musculoskeletal-focused history
        • Perform an appropriate musculoskeletal physical examination to include the spine and extremities.
        • Interpret common plain film radiographs at a beginning level.
        • Participate in surgical care of patients including basic suturing and other skills as determined appropriate by the attending surgeon.
        • Demonstrate professionalism and effective communication skills in patient care and interactions with other members of the health care team.

        Advanced Clerkship Goals:

        1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
        2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills
        3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
        4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
        5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
        6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
        7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
        8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs, tests).
        9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
        10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
        11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
        12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
        13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
        14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
        15. Provide key aspects of the ideal handover to the recipient, including verbalizing the patient's illness severity and/or providing action planning and/or contingency planning.
        16. Demonstrates awareness of known threats to handover communication (e.g., interruptions and distractions) by paying attention to the timing and location of the handover communication.
        17. Acts as an active and integrate member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
        18. Understands the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
        19. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
        20. Adhere to institutional procedures and protocols regarding escalation of patient care.
        21. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
        22. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
        23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
          • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
          • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures
          • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
          • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
        24. Identify real potential errors.
        25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, hand washing).
        26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
        PATH 7510 Selected Topics in Pathology - Section 1 Introduction to Forensic Pathology
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Douglas
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work alongside forensic pathology faculty and staff providing forensic pathology services in a high volume medical examiner’s office. Students will shadow the autopsy assistants, in house investigators, and pathologists for five days, and will also attend daily forensic pathology conferences. Total time expectations will be 20-30 hours per week.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • The role and responsibilities of the medical examiner’s office
        • Deaths that are reportable to the medical examiner’s office
        • Case selection for direct release, external examination, limited examination, and complete autopsy
        • Death certification, including the responsibility of the primary care physician
        PATH 7510 Selected Topics in Pathology - Section 3 Autopsy Service
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Douglas
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Alongside Pathology faculty and staff, students will observe and assist with medical examiner’s office autopsies. Students will assist the autopsy technicians with tasks such as fingerprinting, toxicology specimen collection, evisceration, and preparing the body for release to the funeral home. Students will attend morning conference, observe and assist with daily postmortem examinations, and sign-out rounds for a total time expectation of approximately 20-30 hours per week.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Indications for postmortem examination (view, external examination, limited examination, complete autopsy)
        • Evisceration technique
        • Evidence, toxicology specimen, and histology specimen collection
        • Indications for special dissections
        PATH 7510 Selected Topics in Pathology - Section 4 Forensic Pathology Consultants
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Douglas
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Alongside clinical staff from clinical labs and criminalistics, the student will become familiar with the referral laboratories that produce the reports used to assist the forensic pathologist in reaching conclusions regarding cause and manner of death. This includes rotations with anthropology, the histology lab, core laboratory (including chemistry and microbiology), and spending a half day with the Kalamazoo Sheriff’s Office Crime lab for a total time expectation of approximately 20-30 hours per week.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Develop and demonstrate an understanding of the indications of additional studies
        • Describe and adhere to appropriate use of additional tests
        • Maintain professional and positive relations with referral labs and law enforcement
        PATH 7510 Selected Topics in Pathology - Section 5 Cause of Death, Manner of Death, and Beyond
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Douglas
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Alongside the pathology faculty, students will assimilate all the components of the postmortem examination, from the death scene investigation to assimilating the autopsy findings with ancillary tests to arrive at a cause and manner of death. Students will be given a sample case to work through and generate their own sample autopsy report. Students will present their case at consensus conference, with a full oral presentation of how they have arrived at their final anatomic diagnoses, cause of death, and manner of death. Students will gain an understanding of the use of a forensic pathology autopsy report through attendance of death review committee meetings, attorney meetings, and accompany the pathologist in attorney meetings and court appearances, as available. Total time expectation will be approximately 20-30 hours per week.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • The role autopsy reports play in public health
        • The role autopsy reports play in public safety
        • Role of members of the justice system team
        PATH 7510 Selected Topics in Pathology - Section 6 Forensic Pathology Research
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Douglas
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs. Time expectation varies; maximum of 30 hours/week.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

         

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        PATH 7510 Selected Topics in Pathology - Section 7 Pathology and Medical History in London
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        DeJong
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This elective week occurs in London, England and includes a specially arranged opportunity to examine the hundreds of remarkably preserved human pathology specimens at the Gordon Museum, each with a provided clinical history. In addition, students will participate in educational and guided tours of the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons, the Old Operating Theatre, the Alexander Fleming Laboratory Museum and a visit to the Wellcome Collection. Students participating in this elective will select an applicable disease or disorder and gather literature about the selected disease before leaving for London. Upon departure for London and after studying the specimens at the Gordon Museum, the student will prepare an educational presentation to be delivered to the other students and faculty on the final day. The supervising pathology department member traveling with the students will approve the student-selected disease or disorder in advance. The specific times noted below are subject to change based on availability of access to some of the collections, which are limited to individuals in the medical community and used for teaching medical students in London.

        Students are responsible for all travel, lodging and meal expenses. We hope to be able to arrange for all to stay in the same hotel and be on the same flights, but this would not be a requirement of the elective. Once we identify who will attend, we can proceed with making final arrangements. We are partnering with the professionals at Student Universe to locate the best prices for students studying abroad.

        A couple of the museums have a required fee of about $5-10. Students should stay in the Holburn area of London. The required scheduled activities begin Monday morning and continue through Thursday at 5 PM.

        Offered: M2 elective week 2

        Objectives:
        • Recognize the gross pathological features of multiple medical conditions
        • Gain an understanding of many historical aspects of medicine
        • Observe changes in medical practices
        • Gain familiarity with a specific condition
        • Educate other students and faculty about the condition
        • Gain an appreciation of advances in medical science
        • Recognize variations in medical education
        PATH 7510 Selected Topics in Pathology
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Sharghi
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The student will work alongside pathologists at Bronson Methodist Hospital in the pathology office. Students will shadow pathologist in various fields for five days and will attend conferences that arise. Total expected time will be 20 – 30 hours.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Understand the role and responsibilities of pathologists
        • Differentiate between anatomic pathology and clinical pathology
        • Understand how pathologists gather information to provide a diagnosis
        • Observe and describe gross findings in organs
        PATH 7510 Selected Topics in Pathology - Section 8 Anatomic/Clinical Pathology
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Dr. Elizabeth Douglas
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The student will work alongside pathologists at Bronson Methodist Hospital in the pathology office. Students will shadow pathologist in various fields for five days and will attend conferences that arise. Total expected time will be 20 – 30 hours.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Understand the role and responsibilities of pathologists
        • Differentiate between anatomic pathology and clinical pathology
        • Understand how pathologists gather information to provide a diagnosis
        • Observe and describe gross findings in organs
        PATH 9210 Pathology Research
        Credits:
        4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        PATH 9220 Selected Topics in Pathology
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        PATH 9410 Anatomic Pathology
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        DeJong
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The Anatomic Pathology elective is intended for medical students in their fourth year and provides broad experience in general diagnostic techniques. Students will have opportunities to participate in autopsy pathology, cytopathology and surgical pathology. A daily diagnostic conference is scheduled for students. In addition to direct responsibilities in autopsy and surgical pathology areas, the student will have the opportunities to participate in electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics and flow cytometry techniques.

        Offered:  All weeks

        Objectives:
        • Gather the important information that is needed for the evaluation of specimens in anatomic pathology.
        • Complete a gross examination and dissection of at least 5-10 specimens per week. The student should demonstrate the ability to perform this gross dissection while being observed by at least one attending or resident.
        • Know about common pathologic conditions seen on the relevant subspecialty service (for example, GI pathology).
        • Perform Gross Dissection for the common specimens seen on the relevant subspecialty rotation.
        • Demonstrate professional responsibility in working as a team member with other members of the subspecialty service team, technical and support staff.
        • Career/context Know the training/career pathway for Anatomic Pathology.
        PATH 9420 Forensic Pathology
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        DeJong
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        By familiarizing the students with autopsies, to include clinical history, gross and microscopic findings, the forensic pathology rotation will enhance students' ability to establish clinicopathologic correlations. Emphasis will be placed on the student's development and use of observational and deductive skills, and on self-directed independent study. This elective will also provide an orientation to basic forensic medicine through observation of and active participation in forensic autopsies, death scene investigation, assigned readings, didactic instruction, observation of courtroom testimony and self-directed writing assignments. The student will receive focused instruction on Michigan Compiled Law as it pertains to physicians and the Medical Examiner’s Office in addition to training in proper death certification. The student will be exposed to the related and overlapping fields of anthropology, entomology, law enforcement, odontology and toxicology. The student’s mastery of the material will be assessed through daily teaching rounds and an open-book examination.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:
        • Formulate a differential diagnosis based on a clinical history
        • Observe and describe gross findings in organs
        • Differentiate normal and abnormal gross findings at autopsy
        • Formulate a cause of death based on history, scene investigation and autopsy findings
        • Correlate clinical manifestations of the patient with morphologic findings at autopsy
        • Recognize the microscopic characteristics of frequent diseases
        • Describe the clinical and pathologic characteristics of common diseases and injuries
        • Outline the procedure of obtaining family consent for autopsy in hospital deaths
        • Define criteria for medical examiner’s case and apply the criteria to a variety of scenarios.
        • Exhibit conduct consistent with accepted standards of ethical and professional behavior.
        PEDS 7510 Selected Topics in Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine - Section 1 General Pediatrics Clinic
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Gibson
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students will work alongside departmental faculty and supervising residents caring for pediatric patients in the Department’s Pediatric Clinic. Students will attend morning report with the faculty & residents and then attend in the pediatric clinic from 9:00-5:00. Total time expected is 20-30 hours per week.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Normal growth patterns in children
        • Tanner Stage in adolescents
        • Recommended immunizations in Children and Adolescents
        PEDS 7510 Selected Topics in Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine - Section 3 Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus Clinic
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Draznin
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students with work alongside Martin Draznin MD, the Department’s Director of Pediatric Endocrinology. Students will attend morning report with the faculty & residents and will work with Dr. Draznin in both the outpatient and inpatient setting. Total time expected is 20-30 hours.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Current definition of diabetes mellitus in pediatrics
        • Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents
        PEDS 7510 Selected Topics in Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine - Section 4 Pediatric Pulmonary Clinic
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Gregoire-Bottex
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students with work alongside Myrtha Gregoire-Bottex MD, the Department’s Director of Pediatric Pulmonology. Students will attend morning report with the faculty & resident; they will work with Dr. Gregoire-Bottex in both the outpatient and inpatient setting. Total time expected is 20-30 hours.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • Current definition of asthma
        • Pathophysiology of asthma in children and adolescents
        PEDS 7510 Selected Topics in Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine - Section 7 Pediatric Developmental-Behavioral Clinic
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Apple
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Focus on ADHD. Students will work alongside Dilip R. Patel MD and Helen D. Pratt PhD and colleagues in the outpatient Pediatric Clinic at WMED. Students will attend morning report with the faculty & residents. Total time expected is 20-30 hours.

        Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

        Objectives:
        • DSM-5 definition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
        • Current tools used for ADHD diagnosis in the pediatric clinic
        • Differential diagnosis of ADHD in children & adolescents
        PEDS 7510 Selected Topics in Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine - Section 8 Telemedicine in a Rural Pediatric Practice
        Credits:
        0.5
        Directors:
        Bouchard & Dickson
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The purpose of this elective is to introduce medical students to the practice of tele-medicine in a rural setting. The Holy Family Healthcare Practice, owned and run by Dr. Don Bouchard, is set in rural Hartford, Michigan. The pediatric practice serves the migrant population. In the practice, Dr. Bouchard has developed outreach to the schools using telemedicine. Providers are in the school and operate the unit. At the practice, the physician is able to diagnose and prescribe treatment for a variety of common illnesses.

        Medical students will be able to learn about the use of telemedicine, impact, and will participate in the screening and care of the patients.

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

        1. Describe the multiple uses for telemedicine and cost/benefit
        2. Practice diagnosis and prescribing treatment of patients using telemedicine
        3. Present and discuss patient problems encountered in the school system
        PEDS 8110 Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine
        Credits:
        8
        Directors:
        K Gibson
        Grading:
        Honors/Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The third year Core Pediatric and Adolescent Clerkship will provide the student with broad exposure to both the inpatient and ambulatory aspects of general pediatric care.  There are four components to the clerkship.

        Preparatory Week

        We will begin by defining the expectations and reviewing important procedural components and resources that students will be expected to utilize throughout the rotation.  Week one will focus primarily on the Well Child Care, Fluids and Electrolytes, and issues unique to the newborn and adolescent period.  Additional didactic teaching will include orientation to Bronson Children’s Hospital and EPIC, the role of parent and how it effects the doctor/patient relationship in caring for children. 

        We will spend time on Thursday developing critical thinking skills and discuss differential diagnosis in the child.

        We will utilize CLIPP cases in CBL events and other teaching resources in small group discussions.  

        We plan to utilize the Sim Center to practice pediatric technical skills and practice clinical skills with newborn and adolescent cases. 

        All students will gather on Tuesday and Wednesday afternoon for plenary sessions involving the entire third year class. 

        Three weeks of Ambulatory Pediatrics

        Placements are in the community or the WMed General Pediatric Clinic.

        Main tasks of the rotation are accomplished through observation of doctor patient, doctor family and doctor staff interactions, and when appropriate, patient and family interviewing and physical examination.  Discussion of cases with the medical students may not always occur at the time of patient care in the private practice setting, but students will have an opportunity to learn through teaching that is directed to the patients and their caregivers.

        Goals of the ambulatory component are:

        Introduce the learner to the basis for well child care (growth, development, nutrition, safety, anticipatory guidance) and how these tasks change throughout maturation

        Introduce the learner to common pediatric illness and disease processes

        Utilizes COMSEP’s national pediatric third year curriculum

        Content is supplemented by CLIPP cases and independent learning

        Three weeks of Inpatient Pediatrics

        One week of inpatient pediatrics days (7a-6p).

        One week of inpatient evenings (2p-midnight).

        One weekend inpatient call day (7 am – 6 pm, Saturday or Sunday of inpatient days week).

        One week of caring for the newborn – this experience will include the following elements:   

        Time spent on the mother baby unit involved in patient care during the daytime (3 days)

        Time spent on night call, working with the supervising resident. (2 nights) 
         Goals of the inpatient component are as follow:

        Introduce the learner to common conditions and how to recognize when inpatient care is required.

        Instruct the learner on the transition from fetus to newborn and normal infant physiology.

        Enhance development of differential diagnostic skills.

        Improve history taking and physical examination skills.

        Familiarize the learner with working as part of a healthcare team.

        Provide knowledge of what is required for safe discharge from the inpatient setting.

        Utilize COMSEP national pediatric third year curriculum.

        Content is supplemented by CLIPP cases and independent learning.

        Synthesis and Assessment Week

        The week will begin with OSCE assessments on Monday morning.

        Consolidation of diagnostic and management skills and relate pediatric clinical content to basic science principles.  Methods may include CLIPP cases, CBL format and/or case reviews focusing on management of common pediatric illnesses.

        All students gather on Tuesday and Wednesday afternoon for Plenary sessions.

        Summative cognitive assessment, NBME Pediatric Shelf Test, on Friday afternoon, beginning at 1 pm.

        Objectives:
        • By completion of the Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine Clerkship the third year student will:

          • Demonstrate knowledge of growth and development (physical, physiologic and psychosocial) and of its clinical application from birth through adolescence.
          • Acquire knowledge necessary for diagnosing and initiating management of common pediatric acute and chronic illnesses.
          • Demonstrate an understanding of the approach of pediatricians to the health care of children and adolescents.
          • Demonstrate an understanding of the influence of family, community and society on the child in health and disease.
          • Develop communication skills that facilitate the clinical interaction with children, adolescents and their families and thus ensure complete and accurate data are obtained.
          • Develop competency in the physical examination of infants, children and adolescents.
          • Develop clinical problem-solving skills.
          • Develop and discuss strategies for health promotion as well as disease and injury prevention, including but not limited to the role of immunizations in prevention.
          • Develop attitudes and professional behaviors appropriate for clinical practice.
          • Discuss management strategies for common pediatric diseases.
          • Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism and medical ethics in all patient encounters.
          • Demonstrate professional behaviors when interacting with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals)

          *Adapted from the Council On Medical Student Education in Pediatrics.

        PEDS 8110 Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine
        Credits:
        5.5
        Directors:
        M. Agana
        Grading:
        Honors/High Pass/Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The third year Core Pediatric and Adolescent Clerkship will provide the student with broad exposure to both the inpatient and ambulatory aspects of general pediatric care.  There are four components to the clerkship: Preparatory week, three weeks of ambulatory pediatrics, three weeks of in-patient pediatrics, and synthesis and assessment week.

        Objectives:
        • Demonstrate knowledge of growth and development (physical, physiologic and psychosocial) and of its clinical application from birth through adolescence.
        • Acquire knowledge necessary for diagnosing and initiating management of common pediatric acute and chronic illnesses.
        • Demonstrate an understanding of the approach of pediatricians to the health care of children and adolescents.
        • Demonstrate an understanding of the influence of family, community and society on the child in health and disease.
        • Develop communication skills that facilitate the clinical interaction with children, adolescents and their families and thus ensure complete and accurate data are obtained.
        • Develop competency in the physical examination of infants, children and adolescents.
        • Develop clinical problem-solving skills.
        • Develop and discuss strategies for health promotion as well as disease and injury prevention, including but not limited to the role of immunizations in prevention.
        • Develop attitudes and professional behaviors appropriate for clinical practice.
        • Discuss management strategies for common pediatric diseases.
        • Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism and medical ethics in all patient encounters.
        • Demonstrate professional behaviors when interacting with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals)

        *  Adapted from the Council On Medical Student Education in Pediatrics.

        PEDS 9210 Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine Research
        Credits:
        4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        PEDS 9220 Selected Topics in Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine
        Credits:
        1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
        Directors:
        Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

        Objectives:

        Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

        PEDS 9410 Pediatric Endocrinology
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Draznin
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Pediatric Endocrinology is a primarily ambulatory 4th year elective based at the WMed Pediatric Subspecialty Clinic on Oakland Drive. Students will also have the opportunity to participate in consultations at the Bronson Children’s Hospital in downtown Kalamazoo, MI. Students may spend two or four weeks in our active academic pediatric endocrinology program. The site available is WMed Pediatric Subspecialty Clinic.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Describe processes of growth and their differences in infants children and adolescents.
        • List common growth disorders in all pediatric age groups
        • Give a basic explanation of the evaluation and management of common growth disorders in pediatric patients.
        • Describe the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and basic management principles of diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2) in children and adolescents.
        • Describe the Michigan Newborn Endocrine Screening Program, the treatment and long term care of infants identified to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia or congenital hypothyroidism in plain language that would inform parents and children.
        • Participate in a multidisciplinary diabetes clinic and be able to explain the need for the different disciplines involved.
        PEDS 9420 Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Elliott
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The student will join the Bronson Children’s Hospital Pediatric hematology-oncology unit that is the tertiary care center for blood disorders and cancer for children and adolescents in Southwest Michigan. As a member of the pediatric hematology-oncology team, the student participates in evaluating outpatients, rounding on the inpatient hematology-oncology service and performing inpatient consultations. Selected procedures may be performed (lumbar punctures and bone marrow aspirations). The pediatric hematology-oncology faculty will provide the student with a study outline and reading materials. Independent projects may be arranged. The sites available are WMed Pediatric Clinics.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, students will be able to:

        • Describe physiologic basis underlying age-specific hematologic and coagulation norms and be familiar with peripheral blood and bone marrow smears.
        • Describe the historical, physical and laboratory findings diagnostic of hematologic or oncologic abnormalities and recognize the hematologic findings in disorders of other organ systems.
        • List basic strategies of oncologic treatment, management of complications, and with toxicities associated with chemo radiotherapy.
        • List known chromosomal and molecular genetic abnormalities underlying hematologic/oncologic diseases, including the familial cancer syndrome.
        • Appreciate the hereditary, genetic, protein and laboratory abnormalities associated with congenital bleeding dyscrasias, and become familiar with long-term health issues in these patients.
        • Appreciate the psychological and emotional aspects of childhood cancer and chronic hematologic disorders, and be involved in family genetic counseling sessions.
        PEDS 9440 Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Dr. Gregiore-Bottex
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine is primarily an outpatient experience, but student will participate in all Pediatric activities including Morning report and resident block conferences. The student will have ample opportunity to interview patients, perform physical examinations and discuss management of the most common pulmonary disorders. The student will participate in inpatient rounds and consults on patient admitted at Bronson hospital. They will have opportunity to observe a multidisciplinary team during the Cystic Fibrosis and Ventilation clinics. The student will observe bronchoscopy and spirometry or other pulmonary function testing. Emphasis is also placed on general pediatric issues: growth, immunization, risk of smoking or exposure to tobacco smoke, and infection control, patient education, safety and planning of care. The sites available are WMed Pediatric Subspecialty Clinics.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, all students will be able to:

        • Demonstrate progress in obtaining a pediatric pulmonary history.
        • Demonstrate age appropriate pediatric pulmonary examination.
        • Discuss the genetics, pathophysiology and management of cystic fibrosis, including most common complications and other impairment of airway clearance.
        • Describe two types of airway clearance techniques or devices in cystic fibrosis.
        • Discuss the pathophysiology and classify severity of asthma.
        • Explain the difference between controller and rescue medications for asthma. 
        • Discuss asthma management using the NIH / EPR guidelines based on asthma severity and degree of control.
        • Discuss the basic interpretation of spirometry and other test of pulmonary function.
        • Discuss the general approach to management of chronic cough and stridor.
        • Understand the care of a child with chronic lung disease: including prematurity, aspiration and immunodeficiency.
        • Understand the role of a multidisciplinary team in planning the care for a patient with chronic lung disease.
        • Participate in the quality improvement projects in the Clinic.
        PEDS 9470 Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Dr. Soares
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The purpose of this course is to provide students with an overview of Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics through their participation in several outpatient clinics as well as attendance at some of our community sites.  Students will learn skills specific to interviewing parents, caregivers, and children as well as the common developmental assessments used in general pediatric clinics and assessments used to evaluate for more complex developmental and behavioral concerns.

        Offered:  All weeks 

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Recognize normal and abnormal child development and behavior from infancy through young adulthood; including cognitive, language, motor, social and emotional components.
        • Differentiate between problem behavior and intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence those behaviors that warrant referrals to other specialists.
        • Describe the impact of family structure, adoption and foster care on growth and development.
        • Interview parents, care providers, and youth.
        • Identify psychosocial and developmental screening techniques.
        • Identify components of psychological evaluations.
        • Identify management strategies for children with developmental disabilities or special needs.
        • Recognize needs of children at risk from psychosocial adversity.
        • Recognize abuse and neglect.
        • Discuss the impact of chronic illness, terminal conditions and death on children and their families.
        • Discuss the impact of trauma (domestic violence, bullying, physical and sexual abuse) on youth growth and development (domestic violence, bullying, physical and sexual abuse).
        • Recognize and manage common mental health conditions (anxiety, depression).
        • Recognize and manage common childhood behavioral concerns.
        • Recognize and coordinate childhood and adolescent mental health problems that require referral for diagnosis and treatment.
        PEDS 9480 Prenatal Exposure and Childhood Trauma
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Sloane
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Prenatal Exposure and childhood trauma is an ambulatory 4th year elective based at the WMU Unified Clinics on 1000 Oakland Drive. Students will also have the opportunity to participate in new patient interdisciplinary consultations and interdisciplinary follow-up visits at Elizabeth Upjohn Community Healing Center (2615 Stadium Drive in Kalamazoo) as well as integrated trauma screening and assessments at the Bronson Lakeview Family Care Pediatrics in Paw Paw. Students may spend two or four weeks in our active interdisciplinary elective.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Describe multiple types of child trauma and maltreatment.
        • Understand the brain and developmental impact of traumatic stress including the significant impact on adult health (ACES model).
        • Understand the basic principles of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, including University of Washington FASD Diagnostic Criteria.
        • Understand the deleterious impact of prenatal exposure to toxic stress.
        • Understand the deleterious impact of prenatal exposure to drugs (opiates, stimulants, cannabis, nicotine, et al).
        • Understand the concept of resiliency and the central place of importance for this when constructing trauma-informed case / treatment plans.
        • Understand the concept of secondary traumatic stress and learn the importance of processing trauma cases with a trusted supervisor as well as practical examples of self-care.
        • Understand the essential nature of intergenerational trauma and the practical impact of this in daily pediatric primary care practice.
        • Understand the importance of trauma screening in the primary care setting.
        • Understand the need for comprehensive interdisciplinary integrated trauma assessment in multiple settings.
        • Participate in interdisciplinary trauma assessments in multiple settings (BLFCP, EUCHC, and WMU CTAC) and be able to explain the need for tiered trauma assessment (based on trauma screening results) and the different disciplines involved in each tier.
        • Participate in follow-up visits for children involved in the Early Intervention Program (EIP) at EUCHC, and understand the unique regulatory roles of trauma-informed / sensory-focused occupational therapy, trauma-informed music therapy, and trauma-informed medication treatment in the overall management of complex young children exposed to toxic stress and complex prenatal exposure.
        PEDS 9490 Pediatric Cardiology
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Fountain
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        The student will be working with the Bronson Children's Hospital Pediatric Cardiology Faculty in both the inpatient, consultative, and ambulatory clinic settings. Bronson Children's Hospital serves as the tertiary care referral center for Southwest Michigan.

         

         

         

        Objectives:

        Upon completion of this elective, students will be able to:

        • Demonstrate the ability to do a thorough history of patients with a cardiovascular complaint.
        • Demonstrate the ability to perform a thorough cardiovascular examination, including auscultation.
        • Discuss initial evaluation and management of common pediatric cardiovascular disorders.
        • Understand the rationale for using noninvasive/ invasive diagnostic techniques in the evaluation and treatment of pediatric patients with cardiovascular issues including: echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and electrophysiology, cardiothoracic surgery.
        • Understand the implications of congenital heart disease AND acquired heart disease on the long term growth and development of infants, children, and adolescents.
        PEDS 9510 Newborn and Infant Nutrition
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Gibson
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        During this rotation, students will work clinically with Bronson Lactation Consultants, the Bronson NICU Dietitian and Bronson Pediatric Occupational Therapists. The focus of this clinical experience is to gain first hand experience in evaluating infants and counseling parents and caregivers regarding the normal nutritional needs of infants and troubleshooting feeding problems that may arise during infancy. 

        Offered: May – August  

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        • Demonstrate how to counsel parents and caregivers about normal nutritional needs of the newborn.
        • Evaluate mom/infant dyad regarding appropriate feeding techniques, whether bottle or breast fed.
        • Demonstrate the ability to support breast feeding when there isn’t adequate growth in the infant.
        • Recognize infant risk factors for poor feeding.
        • Recognize maternal factors that lead to breast feeding failure.
        • Describe the role of lactation consultant, dietitian and occupational therapist in supporting normal newborn/infant growth.
        • Describe community resources that help to support infant feeding.
        PEDS 9710 Advanced Hospital Pediatrics
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Lane-Davies, Corpus
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advanced hospital clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume greater responsibility for patient care of the hospitalized patient, with oversight from supervising residents and attending physicians. Students expand upon competencies they develop during the third year as they care for one to two patients at a time. Additional expectations include responsibility for developing management plans, writing orders, patient handovers and transfers of care, recognizing the policies that support patient safety, and developing competency in procedures that they will perform independently as residents. Fourth year students also assist in teaching third year students.

        Advanced Hospital Pediatrics is a hospital based pediatric rotation that utilizes Bronson Children’s Hospital as its clinical site. This center is the tertiary care referral center for pediatric disorders in Southwest Michigan. Fourth year students who have successfully completed all Year 3 required clerkships are eligible to register for this course.  During this rotation, students will focus on the development of patient management skills as they assume primary responsibility for patient care.

        Faculty for this rotation are the Bronson Children's Hospital Pediatric Referral Service.

        Offered:  All weeks

        Objectives:
        • Take primary responsibility for their patients.
        • Perform focused histories, physicals, and communicate orally and in writing appropriately.
        • Share information effectively with patients and families.
        • Prioritize and organize work effectively.
        • Anticipate what patients will need during the course of hospitalization (i.e. when they need to be re-examined, when a lab needs to be repeated, when additional therapy is necessary, when additional history needs to be obtained, discharge criteria) and communicating this information effectively in hand-overs.
        • Re-evaluate patients when taking on their care (i.e. the assessment and plan, as well as the clinical status and looking further when the clinical picture is not consistent with the expected course).
        • Coping with uncertainty in patient care issues (i.e. knowing what you know and what you do not know, accessing best resources, and knowing when and how to get help).
        • Function as a "team player" with families, residents, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff and all others involved in the care of the patient.
        • Coordinate the care of patients during hospitalization and in planning for discharge.

        Advanced Clerkship Goals:

        1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
        2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills
        3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
        4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
        5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
        6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
        7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
        8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs, tests).
        9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
        10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
        11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
        12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
        13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
        14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
        15. Provide key aspects of the ideal handover to the recipient, including verbalizing the patient's illness severity and/or providing action planning and/or contingency planning.
        16. Demonstrates awareness of known threats to handover communication (e.g., interruptions and distractions) by paying attention to the timing and location of the handover communication.
        17. Acts as an active and integrate member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
        18. Understands the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
        19. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
        20. Adhere to institutional procedures and protocols regarding escalation of patient care.
        21. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
        22. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
        23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
          • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
          • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures
          • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
          • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
        24. Identify real potential errors.
        25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, hand washing).
        26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
        PEDS 9720 Advanced Ambulatory Pediatrics
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Patel
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advanced ambulatory clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume initial responsibility for the evaluation of patients in the ambulatory setting. Supervision will be provided by faculty preceptors in the academic setting as well as community private practices. Students expand upon competencies they developed during the third year as they team with residents and/or preceptors to provide preventive health services as well as acute and chronic illness management. The faster pace of ambulatory care provides an environment that strengthens patient and family communication skills, rapport development, and oral presentations. The use of evidence to inform treatment and counseling of patients and their caregivers are additional competencies that are highlighted in the outpatient setting.

        Advanced Ambulatory Pediatrics is a 4 week, outpatient pediatric rotation that utilizes the WMed Pediatric Clinic as well as a community pediatric office as potential clinical sites. Fourth year students who have successfully completed all Year 3 required clerkships are eligible to register for this course. During this rotation, students will focus on understanding the normal progression of growth and development from infancy through adolescence. Students will also develop their diagnostic and management skills of common acute pediatric complaints, with a focus on respiratory, abdominal and dermatologic problems, as well as common behavioral and mental health disorders. Faculty will all have appointments in the Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine.

        Offered:  All weeks

        Objectives:
        • Assess normal and abnormal growth patterns in children and adolescents.
        • Understand Tanner staging in adolescents.
        • Recognize the normal developmental timeline from early infancy to adolescence with regard to the gross motor, fine motor, language, adaptive and personal-social domains.
        • Administer and interpret standardized developmental testing.
        • Discuss the referral patterns for children who present with concerns regarding growth and/or development.
        • Appreciate the importance of vision and hearing assessment.
        • Demonstrate an evaluation of the upper and lower respiratory system including but not limited to otologic examination with pneumatic otoscopy, and nasal passage examination.
        • Recognize, compare and contrast nasal obstruction, stridor, wheezing and alveolar congestion.
        • Demonstrate understanding of abdominal pain in children.Distinguish between benign abdominal pain and that requiring outside consultation.
        • Demonstrate knowledge of basic dermatologic problems in children, demonstrate the ability to describe skin lesions and develop a differential diagnosis based on history and physical findings.

        Advanced Clerkship Goals:

        1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
        2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills.
        3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
        4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
        5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
        6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
        7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
        8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs tests).
        9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
        10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
        11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
        12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
        13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
        14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
        15. Act as an active and integrated member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
        16. understand the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
        17. Maintains a professional demeanor in all but the most trying of circumstances.
        18. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
        19. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
        20. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
        21. Provides complete information to patients and families.
        22. Avoids medical jargon in communicating with patients and families.
        23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
          • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
          • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures.
          • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
          • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
        24. Identify real and potential errors.
        25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, handwashing).
        26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
        PEDS 9721 Advanced Ambulatory Medicine - Pediatrics
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Jayne Barr
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        Advanced ambulatory clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume initial responsibility for the evaluation of patients in the ambulatory setting. Supervision will be provided by faculty preceptors in the academic setting as well as community private practices. Students expand upon competencies they developed during the third year as they team with residents and/or preceptors to provide preventive health services as well as acute and chronic illness management. The faster pace of ambulatory care provides an environment that strengthens patient and family communication skills, rapport development, and oral presentations. The use of evidence to inform treatment and counseling of patients and their caregivers are additional competencies that are highlighted in the outpatient setting.

        This rotation is designed to provide individualized teaching in the management of outpatient medical problems for students interested in combined internal medicine and pediatrics practice experience.  The student will spend the majority of their outpatient clinical experience in a community combined internal medicine and pediatrics practice.  There may also be opportunities for other experiences such as sports medicine and transitions of care clinics.  The student will gain experience in the ambulatory setting including preventative medical services, assessment of growth and development in children and adolescents, diagnosis and treatment management of common adult and pediatric ambulatory problems, psychosocial issues affecting patient compliance, and the importance of multidisciplinary care.  There may also be opportunities for performing or observing procedures such as EKG, Pap, microscopic examination of wet mounts, throat cultures, and injections. Other activities include Internal Medicine grand rounds and block conference and Pediatrics grand rounds and block conference.  At the conclusion of the experience, the student will give a short presentation to the practice site of a topic of interest.

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

        1. EPAs
          • Obtain a medical history and perform a physical examination appropriate to the patients presentation 
          • Construct a logically thought out and prioritized differential diagnosis 
          • Provide oral presentation of a clinical encounter 
          • Collaborate as a member of an interprofessional team; Be responsive to whole patient and behave in a professional manner that embraces and respects diversity while exhibiting compassion, honesty, integrity, respect, and responsibility 
          • Recognize a patient requiring urgent/emergent care and discuss the appropriate evaluation and management 
        2. Competencies
        • Medical Knowledge
          • Awareness of evidence-based guidelines guiding the diagnosis, treatment, and management of common primary care internal medicine and pediatrics problems
            1. Examples of common internal medicine problems include COPD, type 2 diabetes, essential hypertension, coronary artery disease, chronic pain
            2. Examples of common pediatric problems include well child exams, viral illnesses, asthma, ear infections, abdominal pain
          • Self directed learning and reading
        • Patient Care
          • Basic clinical skills – obtain a patient history and physical exam in a logical, organized, and thorough manner while adapting to the urgency of the medical situation and time available.
          • Oral presentations
          • There may be opportunities to perform or observe procedures such as throat cultures, injections, PAP smears, wet mounts, dermatologic procedures (cryrosurgery, excision of skin lesions and moles), PFTs and EKGs.
          • Identify opportunity to improve health promotion through patient education such as smoking cessation
        • Systems Based Practice
          • Community resources
        • Practice Based Learning and Improvement
          • Self directed learning and reading
          • Presentation of common Med Ped disease
        • Interpersonal and Communication Skills
          • Effective communication – perform patient interviews and physical examinations, and enhance presentation skills.
        • Professionalism
          • The student demonstrates responsible, professional, and respectful behavior.
          • Accepts constructive criticism and receptive to receiving feedback

        Advanced Clerkship Goals:

        1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
        2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills.
        3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
        4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
        5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
        6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
        7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
        8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs tests).
        9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
        10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
        11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
        12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
        13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
        14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
        15. Act as an active and integrated member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
        16. understand the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
        17. Maintains a professional demeanor in all but the most trying of circumstances.
        18. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
        19. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
        20. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
        21. Provides complete information to patients and families.
        22. Avoids medical jargon in communicating with patients and families.
        23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
          • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
          • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures.
          • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
          • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
        24. Identify real and potential errors.
        25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, handwashing).
        26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
        PEDS 9810 Advanced Pediatric Critical Care
        Credits:
        2,4
        Directors:
        Robert Beck
        Grading:
        Pass/Fail
        Description:

        This rotation offers students the opportunity to accelerate their learning by spending a four week block in the intensive care unit.  The rotation provides the student the opportunity to diagnose and treat of a wide range of clinical conditions common among critically ill patients. Students will enhance their knowledge and skill in caring for the sickest patients in the hospital.  The Clinical site utilized for the Pediatric Advanced Critical Care Clerkship is the pediatric ICU at Bronson Children’s Hospital.  Students will be paired with interns and residents, and will participate in the ICU in a dedicated fashion; the intent is for students to function as a “subintern” and will result in a high level learning experience. 

        Students will be expected to participate on rounds, will continue to perfect the gathering and synthesis of data, and expand on their ability to make diagnoses and develop care plans.  The student will be expected to gather a history based upon interview of patients/families, evaluate laboratory and radiographic material, and generate differential diagnoses and management plans.  They will also be expected to improve their documentation skills by writing patient notes in the electronic medical record.

        This is a 4 week block rotation, and will correspond to the calendar set forth by the Western Michigan University School of Medicine. This varies on the time of year and the rotation site. The pediatric ICU consists of all aspects of pediatric critical care.

        Offered: All weeks

        Objectives:

        After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          Hemodynamics/Cardiovascular System

          1. Understand the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of shock
          2. Understand the basics of hemodynamic monitoring and apply this to resuscitation medicine
          3. Understand the basics of fluid resuscitation
          4. Know indications for the use of vasoactive agents
          5. Recognize and treat dysrhythmias
          6. Understand the principles of managing cardiac arrest

          Pulmonary System

          1. Recognize basic patterns on chest radiograph evaluation (ie infiltrate, effusion, pneumothorax)
          2. Understand basic pulmonary physiology (shunt, V/Q mismatch, dead space)
          3. Interpret arterial blood gases, and apply A-a gradient, P/F ratio
          4. Understand the indications for intubation and mechanical ventilation
          5. Understand the basics of mechanical ventilation and management
          6. Understand spontaneous awakening trials and spontaneous breathing trials and apply these to liberation from mechanical ventilation
          7. Recognize and treat pulmonary complications including pneumothorax, ARDS (including permissive hypercapnea), pneumonia, atelectasis, pulmonary embolism

          Gastrointestinal System

          1. Diagnose and treat gastrointestinal hemorrhage
          2. Diagnose and treat clostridium difficile colitis and its complications
          3. Recognize and treat complication from congenital GI abnormalities
          4. Evaluate and treat pancreatitis

          Neurologic System

          1. Understand Cerebral Perfusion Pressure and its management
          2. Diagnosis and treat acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke
          3. Diagnose and treat subarachnoid hemorrhage
          4. Diagnose and treat seizures including status epilepticus
          5. Be familiar with brain death and its determination
          6. Be familiar with sedation and analgesia and its effect on the CNS in the ICU

          Renal System

          1. Understand, diagnose, and treat oliguria
          2. Define and treat acute kidney injury
          3. Know the indications for renal replacement therapy

          Metabolic System

          1. Be familiar with, understand, and treat electrolyte disturbances
          2. Manage hyperglycemia in the ICU
          3. Understand, diagnose, and treat acid base disorders

          Hematologic System

          1. Understand the indications for blood product transfusion in the ICU
          2. Evaluate and treat anemia
          3. Evaluate and treat abnormalities of coagulation
          4. Understand principles of anticoagulation

          Endocrine System

          1. Evaluate and treat abnormalities of the thyroid axis as it relates to critical illness
          2. Evaluate and treat abnormalities of the adrenal gland as it relates to critical illness
          3. Understand the principles of steroid replacement in the ICU

          Infectious Diseases and Sepsis

          1. Understand source identification and control of infections
          2. Understand the basics of antibiotic selection and subsequent stewardship
          3. Define and treat sepsis and septic shock, including early goal-directed therapy, and resuscitation and support

          Advanced Clerkship Goals:

          1. Recognize the severity of illness in patients with a variety critical illness.
          2. Provide an extensive and complete assessment of the patient, including a complete history and physical examination, evaluation of laboratory data and radiographic material, synthesis of patient information, and generation of a comprehensive care plan.
          3. Develop a rational evaluation and management plan for the stabilization and treatment of organ system dysfunction while evaluating and treating underlying etiologies.
          4. Demonstrate competent use of technologic procedures and devices in the intensive care setting for the purposes of evaluating, monitoring, and managing patients.
          5. Integrate imaging and other diagnostic studies in assessing the critically ill.
          6. Effectively engage consultants and other ancillary care services in a team approach to manage critically ill patients.
          7. Perform procedures necessary for the assessment and treatment of critically ill patients.
          8. When indicated, address end of life decision making and advanced directives, and provide counseling for patients and their families.
          9. Provide appropriate documentation of all patient interactions

           

          PROF 7310 Profession of Medicine 1
          Credits:
          4
          Directors:
          Dickinson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Profession of Medicine is a series of seven courses that span all four years of medical school. These courses provide an integrated curriculum of health systems science and the art of medicine to ensure a competent and compassionate physician that serves patients, families, and society. The curriculum is coordinated with the biomedical sciences courses during Foundations of Medicine (years 1 and 2) and the third-year clerkships during Clinical Applications.

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 7310 Profession of Medicine 1
          Credits:
          5
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Profession of Medicine is a series of seven courses that span all four years of medical school. These courses provide an integrated curriculum of health systems science and the art of medicine to ensure a competent and compassionate physician that serves patients, families, and society. The curriculum is coordinated with the biomedical sciences courses during Foundations of Medicine (years 1 and 2) and the third-year clerkships during Clinical Applications.

          Profession of Medicine is a series of seven courses that span all four years of medical school. These courses provide an integrated curriculum of health systems science and the art of medicine to ensure a competent and compassionate physician that serves patients, families, and society. The curriculum is coordinated with the biomedical sciences courses during Foundations of Medicine (years 1 and 2) and the third-year clerkships during Clinical Applications.

          Profession of Medicine is a series of seven courses that span all four years of medical school. These courses provide an integrated curriculum of health systems science and the art of medicine to ensure a competent and compassionate physician that serves patients, families, and society. The curriculum is coordinated with the biomedical sciences courses during Foundations of Medicine (years 1 and 2) and the third-year clerkships during Clinical Applications.

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.
          PROF 7312 Profession of Medicine 2
          Credits:
          5
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 7312 Profession of Medicine 2
          Credits:
          4
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Profession of Medicine is a series of seven courses that span all four years of medical school. These courses provide an integrated curriculum of health systems science and the art of medicine to ensure a competent and compassionate physician that serves patients, families, and society. The curriculum is coordinated with the biomedical sciences courses during Foundations of Medicine (years 1 and 2) and the third-year clerkships during Clinical Applications.

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 7320 Profession of Medicine 3
          Credits:
          5
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 7320 Profession of Medicine 3
          Credits:
          6
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 7320 Profession of Medicine 3
          Credits:
          6
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 7322 Profession of Medicine 4
          Credits:
          5
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 7322 Profession of Medicine 4
          Credits:
          6
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 7322 Profession of Medicine 4
          Credits:
          6
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 7510 Selected Topics in Profession of Medicine
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

          Objectives:

          Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

          PROF 8330 Profession of Medicine 5
          Credits:
          1
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

           

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

           

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 8330 Profession of Medicine 5
          Credits:
          2
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 8332 Profession of Medicine 6
          Credits:
          1
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 8332 Profession of Medicine 6
          Credits:
          2
          Directors:
          Dickson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

          • Medical Ethics and Humanities
          • Leadership
          • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
          • Evidence-based Medicine
          • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
          • Cultural Competence
          • Social Determinants of Health
          • Health Equity
          • Health Advocacy
          • Population Health
          • Preventive Medicine
          • Palliative Care
          • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
          • Biomedical Informatics
          • Health Literacy
          • Information Literacy
          • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

          In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

          • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
          • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

          The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

          Objectives:

          Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

          • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
          • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
          • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
          • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
          • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
          • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
          • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
          • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
          • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
          • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
          • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
          • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
          • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
          • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
          • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
          • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
          • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
          • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
          • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

          Clinical Skills Objectives

          • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
          • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
          • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
          • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
          • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
          • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
          • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
          • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
          • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
          • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
          • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
          • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

          Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

          • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
          • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
          • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
          • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
          • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
          • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
          • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
          • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
          • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
          • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
          • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
          • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
            • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
            • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
            • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
            • Plan a community-based health initiative.
            • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
            • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
            • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
            • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

           

          PROF 9340 Profession of Medicine 7
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Gibb, Redinger
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Profession of Medicine 7 is a one-week course during the spring of the fourth year of medical school, and serves as a capstone review of medical ethics. The course consists of a series of student-presented and faculty-supervised clinical pathological conferences. Each presentation addresses actual medical ethical dilemmas that students have encountered during their medical school courses and clerkships. Students and faculty then lead small group discussions outlining the various ethical principles and approaches to these ethical dilemma. 

          Objectives:
          1. Define medical ethics and humanities and their relevance to the practice of medicine.
          2. Describe the historical context for the development of modern medical ethics.
          3. Analyze specific historical clinical scenarios that influenced the development of modern medical ethics, utilizing the recommended framework (4 Box Method) for addressing ethical conflict.
          4. Identify resources available for guidance in resolving ethical questions, including the AMA Code of Medical Ethics, and others.
          5. Apply the concepts taught throughout the curriculum to specific cases of ethical dilemma and conflict.
          PSYC 7510 Selected Topics in Psychiatry - Section 1 Inpatient Adult Psychiatry
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Longstreet
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students work directly with psychiatry faculty, residents, and a multi-disciplinary team in an inpatient adult setting. Students assist in patient evaluation and management through their hospitalization. Students attend weekly psychiatry conferences, and total time expectation is 25-30 hours per week.

          Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

          Objectives:
          • Assist in conducting evaluations of newly admitted patients.
          • Participate in discussions regarding the diagnosis and treatment plan for patients with various common psychopathologies
          • Gain exposure to basic pharmacology of commonly used psychotropic medications.
          • Gain exposure to the management of patients with a variety of psychopathologies
          • Gain exposure to the satisfactions and challenges of the practice of psychiatry
          PSYC 7510 Selected Topics in Psychiatry - Section 2 Inpatient Adolescent Psychiatry
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Longstreet
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students participate in the adolescent inpatient and partial hospitalization programs at Borgess Medical Center, working with child and adolescent psychiatrists, psychiatry residents, and other professionals of the treatment team. Students are exposed to a variety of activities, such as psychological testing, group therapy, individual therapy, family therapy, and activities therapy. Students attend weekly psychiatry conferences, and total time expectation is 25-30 hours per week.

          Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

          Objectives:
          • Assist in the evaluation of newly admitted adolescents.
          • Gain understanding of the family and community resources available to patients
          • Participate in discussions of common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents
          • Gain exposure to basic pharmacology of commonly used psychotropic medications
          • Observe individual and family therapy sessions
          • Gain exposure to the satisfactions and challenges of the practice of child and adolescent psychiatry
          PSYC 7510 Selected Topics in Psychiatry - Section 3 Inpatient Geriatric Psychiatry
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Longstreet
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students work directly with psychiatry faculty and residents, and a multi-disciplinary team in an inpatient setting with older adults. Students assist with patient evaluation and management. Students attend weekly psychiatry conferences, and total time expectation is 25-30 hours per week.

          Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

          Objectives:
          • Assist in evaluating older adults with psychiatric presentations
          • Gain awareness of the contributions of medical illness and medications to psychiatric presentations
          • Gain exposure to the use and results of psychometric screening instruments
          • Gain exposure to family and community resources available to patients
          • Gain exposure to common neuropsychiatric disorders
          • Gain basic awareness of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches to manage behavioral problems in the older patient
          PSYC 7510 Selected Topics in Psychiatry - Section 4 Hospital Consultation Psychiatry
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Longstreet
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students work directly with psychiatry faculty and residents performing psychiatric evaluations of patients on hospital medical/surgical services referred for psychiatric consultation. Students also attend weekly psychiatry conferences, and total time expectation is 25-30 hours per week.

          Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

          Objectives:
          • Be exposed to the assessment of patients with common psychiatric referral problems.
          • Gain a basic understanding of the role of the consultation psychiatrist
          • Gain basic understanding of the role of drug interactions, adverse side effects and poly-pharmacy in psychiatric presentations.
          • Gain exposure to cognitive assessments of delirium and dementia
          PSYC 8110 Psychiatry and Neurology
          Credits:
          8
          Directors:
          Longstreet, Crooks
          Grading:
          Honors/Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The goals of the third year medical student clerkship in Psychiatry is designed to provide the student with a broad clinical experience. 
The students will participate in clinical experiences in the inpatient unit at Borgess 
and the outpatient PTSD clinic at the Battle Creek VA.

          Objectives:
          • The Neurology portion of the clerkship is designed to provide the students with clinical experiences in Neurology in inpatient and outpatient venues.

            1. Neurology:
            Upon completion of the Neurology component of the Psychiatry/Neurology Clerkship the third year student shall be able to:

          • Examine patients with altered level of consciousness or abnormal mental status and identify grossly abnormal findings.
          • Deliver a clear, concise, and thorough oral presentation of a neurologic patient’s history and examination.
          • Prepare a clear, concise, and thorough written presentation of a neurologic patient’s history and examination.
          • Perform a lumbar puncture on a task trainer demonstrating proper aseptic and procedural technique.
          • Recognize symptoms that may signify neurologic disease (including disturbances of consciousness, cognition, language, vision, hearing, equilibrium, motor function, somatic sensation, and autonomic function).
          • Distinguish normal from abnormal findings on a neurologic examination.
          • Localize the likely site or sites in the nervous system where a lesion could produce a patient’s symptoms and signs.
          • Formulate a differential diagnosis based on lesion localization, time course, and relevant historical and demographic features.
          • Discuss the use and interpretation of common tests used in diagnosing neurologic disease.
          • Demonstrate awareness of the principles underlying a systematic approach to the management of common neurologic diseases (including the recognition and management of situations that are potential emergencies, including, but not limited to stroke, seizures, and meningitis).
          • Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism and medical ethics in all patient encounters.
          • Demonstrate professional behaviors when interacting with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals).

          *Adapted from the Association of Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry.*Adapted  from  the American  Academy  of  Neurology,  Association  of  University Professors of Neurology, and American Neurological Association.

          2.Psychiatry

          Upon completion of the Psychiatry component of the Psychiatry/Neurology Clerkship the third year student shall be able to:

          Conduct a complete psychiatric history and examination. Recognize the importance of historical data from multiple sources including family members, healthcare providers, spiritual leaders, old records, child’s teachers, indigenous and complementary providers, etc. Interpret historical data obtained from multiple, relevant sources. Discuss signs and symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Perform the components of the comprehensive Mental Status Examination. Describe common abnormalities, including their causes, for each component of the Mental Status Exam. Perform common screening exams for common psychiatric disorders. Discuss assessing patients who may be at risk for harm to themselves or others. Demonstrate an effective repertoire of interviewing skills including engaging and putting patients at ease, and avoiding common pitfalls. Provide appropriate follow up on patient's clinical progress. Discuss the common methods of various psychotherapies. Discuss common therapeutics, including the indications, contraindications, basic mechanism of action, and side effects of psychotropic medications. Discuss ethical principles in the care of psychiatric patients including respect for patient's autonomy and confidentiality. Discuss relevant legal  issues such as capacity evaluation, civil commitment and the process of obtaining voluntary and involuntary treatment. Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism and medical ethics in all patient encounters. Demonstrate professional behaviors when interacting with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals).

          PSYC 8110 Psychiatry
          Credits:
          4
          Directors:
          Longstreet
          Grading:
          Honors/High Pass/Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The goals of the third year medical student clerkship in Psychiatry is designed to provide the student with a broad clinical experience. ​
The students will participate in clinical experiences in the inpatient unit at Borgess ​or the inpatient unit at the Battle Creek VA.

          Objectives:
          • Conduct a complete psychiatric history and examination.
          • Recognize the importance of historical data from multiple sources including family members, healthcare providers, spiritual leaders, old records, child’s teachers, indigenous and complementary providers, etc.
          • Interpret historical data obtained from multiple, relevant sources.
          • Discuss signs and symptoms of psychiatric disorders.
          • Perform the components of the comprehensive Mental Status Examination.
          • Describe common abnormalities, including their causes, for each component of the Mental Status Exam.
          • Perform common screening exams for common psychiatric disorders.
          • Discuss assessing patients who may be at risk for harm to themselves or others.
          • Demonstrate an effective repertoire of interviewing skills including engaging and putting patients at ease, and avoiding common pitfalls.
          • Provide appropriate follow up on patient's clinical progress.
          • Discuss the common methods of various psychotherapies.
          • Discuss common therapeutics, including the indications, contraindications, basic mechanism of action, and side effects of psychotropic medications.
          • Discuss ethical principles in the care of psychiatric patients including respect for patient's autonomy and confidentiality.
          • Discuss relevant legal issues such as capacity evaluation, civil commitment and the process of obtaining voluntary and involuntary treatment.
          • Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism and medical ethics in all patient encounters.
          • Demonstrate professional behaviors when interacting with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals).

          *  Adapted from the Association of Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry.

          PSYC 9210 Psychiatry Research
          Credits:
          4,5,6,7,8
          Directors:
          Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

          Objectives:

          Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

          PSYC 9220 Selected Topics in Psychiatry
          Credits:
          1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
          Directors:
          Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

          Objectives:

          Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

          PSYC 9420 Adolescent Psychiatry
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Longstreet
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students are expected to work in a treatment team including an attending psychiatrist, resident, social worker and therapists. Students will be expected to become involved with psychological testing, group therapy, individual therapy, family therapy, and activities therapy. The site available is Borgess Medical Center.

          Objectives:

          After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          1. Demonstrate the capacity to perform a comprehensive intake evaluation on adolescents.
          2. Assess and utilize family and community resources to better understand and manage patients.
          3. Assess and manage the common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents.
          4. Utilize common psychotherapeutic and psycho-pharmacological treatment approaches.
          5. Conduct observed individual and family therapy sessions.
          6. Obtain collateral information from as well as provide comfort for the families and patients.
          PSYC 9430 Adult Psychiatry
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Longstreet
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students work directly with a faculty psychiatrist, a psychiatry resident, and a multi-disciplinary team in an inpatient setting with adult patients. Students perform initial evaluations and help manage their own patients throughout their hospitalization (if desired, the student may participate in the ECT Service). The site available is Borgess Medical Center.

          Available: All weeks

          Objectives:

          After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          1. Demonstrate capacity to conduct comprehensive intake evaluations of inpatient.
          2. Discuss the diagnosis of a basic formulation, and provide a practical treatment plan for patients with a wide variety of psychopathologies.
          3. Discuss basic pharmacology of psychotropic medications.
          4. Manage their own inpatients with relative autonomy.
          5. Provide supportive and or motivational therapies for inpatients when indicated.
          PSYC 9440 General Psychiatry
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Longstreet
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students work directly with a faculty psychiatrist and often with a psychiatry resident. Students perform psychiatric evaluations and appropriate follow-up of patients on hospital medical/surgical services who are referred for psychiatric consultation. The sites available are Borgess Medical Center and Bronson Hospital.

          Offered: All weeks

          Objectives:

          After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Discuss the role of psychological and behavioral processes that impact patients’ somatic presentations in the general medical setting.
          • Gain experience seeing patients with a variety of medical illnesses and psychiatric issues.
          • Demonstrate the ability to clarify the reason(s) for a psychiatric consultation.
          • Demonstrate the capacity to effectively assess patients with common psychiatric referral problems.
          • Discuss the role of drug interactions, adverse effects of medications, and poly-pharmacy in the patient's psychiatric presentation.
          • Develop the capacity to perform cognitive assessments on these patients with delirium and or dementia.
          • Demonstrate the ability to perform a neurological screening exam, and know when it is appropriate to order neurodiagnostic tests.
          • Demonstrate the ability to provide supportive therapy for patients in the general hospital setting.
          • Provide capacity evaluations
          • Become knowledgeable about those medical conditions that present with psychiatric symptoms.
          PSYC 9460 Psychiatry Ethics
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Redinger
          Description:

          This elective course is designed for students who are interested in psychiatric ethics. This may be due to an interest in either advanced application of medical ethics or psychiatry as a medical specialty. As a specialty, psychiatry frequently encounters ethical dilemmas.  Some of these are shared with other medical specialties while others are unique to psychiatric practice because of the nature of mental illness. Students interested in taking this selective should be prepared to respectfully engage in challenging discussions about the ethical care of psychiatric patients. The intended outcome of the elective is to improve student knowledge and confidence in their ability to act professionally and to analyze and address ethical dilemmas in the practice of psychiatry. The elective will take place at WMU Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine.

          Offered: All weeks

          Objectives:
          • Meaningfully and respectfully engage in discussions about ethically complex issues and cases in the practice of psychiatry.
          • Understand the history of psychiatric ethics.
          • Discuss ethical conflicts that arise in the practice of psychiatry, including those common to other specialties as well as those unique to the practice of psychiatry.These include but are not limited to:
            • Boundary and Dual Relationship Issues
            • Confidentiality and Truth-Telling
            • Determination of Decision-Making Capacity and Informed Consent
            • Involuntary Treatment
            • Ethical Issues Relating to Special Psychiatric Populations
            • Ethical Issues Relating to the Practice of Psychiatric
            • Religion and Psychiatry
            • The History of the Relationship between Psychiatry and the Pharmaceutical Industry
            • The Involvement of Psychiatry in Human Rights Violations
          • Apply the “4-Topics Approach” of case analysis in ethical conflicts in the psychiatric setting.
          • Discuss and appropriately utilize the APA Principles of Medical Ethics with Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and other sources of ethical guidance available to psychiatrists.
          • Understand and strive to embody the ideals of a virtuous psychiatrist, including but not limited to: altruism, compassion, empathy, trustworthiness, honesty, integrity, solidarity, and devotion to their patients.
          PSYC 9710 Advanced Adult Psychiatry
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Longstreet
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Advanced hospital clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume greater responsibility for patient care of the hospitalized patient, with oversight from supervising residents and attending physicians. Students expand upon competencies they develop during the third year as they care for one to two patients at a time. Additional expectations include responsibility for developing management plans, writing orders, patient handovers and transfers of care, recognizing the policies that support patient safety, and developing competency in procedures that they will perform independently as residents. Fourth year students also assist in teaching third year students.

          Students work directly with a faculty psychiatrist, usually a psychiatry resident, and a multi-disciplinary team in an inpatient setting with older adult patients. Students perform initial evaluations and help manage patients throughout their hospitalization (if desired, the student may participate in the ECT Service). The site available is Borgess Medical Center.

          Not offered July and August

          Objectives:

          After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Demonstrate capacity to conduct comprehensive intake evaluations of inpatients
          • Discuss the diagnosis of a basic formulation, and provide a practical treatment plan for patients with a wide variety of psychopathologies.
          • Discuss basic pharmacology of psychotropic medications.
          • Manage their own inpatients with relative autonomy.
          • Provide supportive and or motivational therapies for inpatients when indicated.

          Advanced Clerkship Goals:

          1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
          2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills
          3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
          4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
          5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
          6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
          7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
          8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs, tests).
          9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
          10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
          11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
          12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
          13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
          14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
          15. Provide key aspects of the ideal handover to the recipient, including verbalizing the patient's illness severity and/or providing action planning and/or contingency planning.
          16. Demonstrates awareness of known threats to handover communication (e.g., interruptions and distractions) by paying attention to the timing and location of the handover communication.
          17. Acts as an active and integrate member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
          18. Understands the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
          19. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
          20. Adhere to institutional procedures and protocols regarding escalation of patient care.
          21. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
          22. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
          23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
            • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
            • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures
            • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
            • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
          24. Identify real potential errors.
          25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, hand washing).
          26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
          PSYC 9712 Advanced Adolescent Psychiatry
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Longstreet
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Advanced hospital clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume greater responsibility for patient care of the hospitalized patient, with oversight from supervising residents and attending physicians. Students expand upon competencies they develop during the third year as they care for one to two patients at a time. Additional expectations include responsibility for developing management plans, writing orders, patient handovers and transfers of care, recognizing the policies that support patient safety, and developing competency in procedures that they will perform independently as residents. Fourth year students also assist in teaching third year students.

          Advanced Adolescent Psychiatry is an experience during which time students work as part of a treatment team including an attending psychiatrist, resident, social worker and therapists. Students will engage with faculty and staff in the process of psychological testing, group therapy, individual therapy, family therapy, and activities therapy. The site available is Borgess Medical Center.

          Not offered July and August

          Objectives:

          After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Demonstrate the capacity to perform a comprehensive intake evaluation on adolescents.
          • Assess and utilize family and community resources to better understand and manage patients.
          • Assess and manage the common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents.
          • Utilize common psychotherapeutic and psycho-pharmacological treatment approaches.
          • Conduct observed individual and family therapy sessions.
          • Obtain collateral information from as well as provide comfort for the families and patients.

          Advanced Clerkship Goals:

          1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
          2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills
          3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
          4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
          5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
          6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
          7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
          8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs, tests).
          9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
          10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
          11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
          12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
          13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
          14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
          15. Provide key aspects of the ideal handover to the recipient, including verbalizing the patient's illness severity and/or providing action planning and/or contingency planning.
          16. Demonstrates awareness of known threats to handover communication (e.g., interruptions and distractions) by paying attention to the timing and location of the handover communication.
          17. Acts as an active and integrate member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
          18. Understands the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
          19. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
          20. Adhere to institutional procedures and protocols regarding escalation of patient care.
          21. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
          22. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
          23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
            • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
            • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures
            • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
            • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
          24. Identify real potential errors.
          25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, hand washing).
          26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
          PSYC 9714 Advanced Geriatric Psychiatry
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Longstreet
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Advanced hospital clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume greater responsibility for patient care of the hospitalized patient, with oversight from supervising residents and attending physicians. Students expand upon competencies they develop during the third year as they care for one to two patients at a time. Additional expectations include responsibility for developing management plans, writing orders, patient handovers and transfers of care, recognizing the policies that support patient safety, and developing competency in procedures that they will perform independently as residents. Fourth year students also assist in teaching third year students.

          Students work directly with a faculty psychiatrist, usually a psychiatry resident, and a multi-disciplinary team in an inpatient setting with older adult patients. Students perform initial evaluations and help manage patients throughout their hospitalization (if desired, the student may participate in the ECT Service). The site available is Borgess Medical Center.

          Not offered July and August

          Objectives:

          After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Demonstrate the capacity to provide psychiatric evaluations on older adult patients.
          • Discuss the effects of medical illnesses and medications on the presentation of psychiatric illness.
          • Demonstrate the ability to appropriately use and interpret the results of various psychometric screening instruments.
          • Demonstrate the ability to assess and utilize family and community resources to better understand and manage patients.
          • Identify and assess common neuropsychiatric disorders.
          • Discuss pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic including treatment approaches to manage behavioral problems.
          • Explain the unique biomedical processes involved in the presentation of psychiatric symptoms in some medical conditions as well as the effect of medical illnesses on psychiatric disorders.

          Advanced Clerkship Goals:

          1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
          2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills
          3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
          4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
          5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
          6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
          7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
          8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs, tests).
          9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
          10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
          11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
          12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
          13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
          14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
          15. Provide key aspects of the ideal handover to the recipient, including verbalizing the patient's illness severity and/or providing action planning and/or contingency planning.
          16. Demonstrates awareness of known threats to handover communication (e.g., interruptions and distractions) by paying attention to the timing and location of the handover communication.
          17. Acts as an active and integrate member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
          18. Understands the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
          19. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
          20. Adhere to institutional procedures and protocols regarding escalation of patient care.
          21. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
          22. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
          23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
            • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
            • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures
            • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
            • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
          24. Identify real potential errors.
          25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, hand washing).
          26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
          RAD 7510 Selected Topics in Radiology - Section 1 Interventional Radiology
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Tominna, McCosky
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Student will work alongside interventional radiologists, midlevel providers and other departmental staff to be introduced to the practice of Interventional Radiology. The student will observe interventional radiology procedures, and assist, as appropriate. The student will attend any applicable conferences during his/her elective week. Total time expectations will be 25-30 hours per week.

          Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

          Objectives:
          • Understand the interventional radiologist’s role in the healthcare team
          • Demonstrate understanding of the principles of mutual respect, honesty, and discretion in the use of patient clinical and imaging data, as a part of the clinical radiology team, and when interacting with other staff.
          • Gain a basic understanding of the risks, benefits, limitations and indications for common IR procedures.
          • Learn how different imaging modalities are used to guide procedures and begin to understand when each is used (ultrasonography, fluoroscopy, CT).
          • Explain a basic understanding of the indications and techniques of common IR procedures:
          • Understand basic methods used to reduce radiation dose during IR procedures
          RAD 7510 Selected Topics in Radiology - Section 2 Diagnostic Radiology
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Tominna, McCosky
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Student will work alongside diagnostic radiologists and other departmental staff to be introduced to the practice of diagnostic radiology. The student will observe diagnostic radiologic procedures and methods, and will assist as appropriate. The student will attend applicable conferences. The total time expectation is 25-30 hours per week.

          Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

          Objectives:
          • Be able to discuss the specialty of diagnostic radiology
          • Be able to discuss the diagnostic radiologist’s role on the health care team
          • Be able to discuss the imaging modalities available in the diagnostic radiology department
          • Be able to provide a basic interpretation of a chest x-ray
          • Be able to discuss the principles of mutual respect, honesty, and discretion in the use of patient clinical and imaging data as part of the radiology team
          RAD 9210 Radiology Research
          Credits:
          4,5,6,7,8
          Directors:
          Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

          Objectives:

          Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

          RAD 9220 Selected Topics in Radiology
          Credits:
          1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
          Directors:
          Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

          Objectives:

          Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

          RAD 9410 Diagnostic Radiology
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Tominna, Smullens
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          This is an overview of diagnostic radiology. Students will rotate through general radiology and the different subspecialties (gastrointestinal, neuroradiology, mammography, interventional radiology, musculoskeletal, and emergency radiology). Students will participate in the daily reading of images and in the performance of procedures. They will operate during the rotation as part of a team consisting of physicians, physician assistants, radiology physician assistants, nurses, and technologists.

          During the elective, the students will choose what rotations they would like to participate in. They will participate in interpretation of images and performing procedures with the staff radiologist. Students will be on the rotation for approximate ten hours per day, some of which may be night shifts. Students will be expected to present an interesting case at the end of the elective. Students will attend all departmental conferences.

          Offered: All weeks

          Objectives:

          After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Develop and demonstrate an understanding of the imaging modalities of radiology (X-ray, Ultrasound, CT, MRI, Fluoroscopy, Nuclear Medicine, and Interventional Radiology).
          • Develop and demonstrate an understanding of the indications for imaging.
          • Develop and demonstrate an understanding of the anatomy on imaging
          • Develop an understanding of the pathology seen on imaging.
          • Maintain a professional and positive relationship with the radiology staff and referring clinicians (professional, interpersonal and communication skills).
          • Develop an understanding of the limitations of imaging.
          • Develop an understanding of the risks of radiation and contrast.
          • Develop an understanding of the terminology used in radiology.
          RAD 9460 Interventional Radiology
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Tominna, Smullens
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          This is a 2 or 4-week elective in interventional radiology. Students will be expected to be involved in the initial work up of patients, participate in procedures, and in the follow-up care of patients. Students will be expected to understand the risks, benefits and alternatives to procedures. The will be expected to perform basic procedure (line placement, paracetesis and thoracetesis) by the end of the rotation. Students will also be expected to participate in ward rounds. They will operate during the rotation as part of a team consisting of physicians, physician assistants, radiology physician assistants, nurses, and technologists. Students will not be required to take call. Students will be expected to present an interesting case at the end of the elective. Students will attend all departmental conferences.

          Offered: All weeks

          Objectives:

          After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Develop and demonstrate an understanding of the different imaging modalities used in interventional radiology (X-ray, Ultrasound, CT, MRI, and Fluoroscopy).
          • Develop and demonstrate an understanding of the indications, alternatives, and risks for intervention.
          • Develop and demonstrate an understanding of the anatomy on imaging.
          • Develop the skill to be able to perform basic procedures (image guided line placement, paracentesis and thoracentesis).
          • Participate in more complex procedures and understand the equipment used.
          • Maintain professional and positive relationships with interventional radiology staff and referral clinicians (Professionalism, Interpersonal and Communication Skills).
          • Attend clinic once a week with the interventional radiologist.
          • Develop an understanding of the risks of radiation and contrast.
          • Develop an understanding of the terminology used in interventional radiology.
          RES 7510 Selected Topics in Research - Section 3 Making Medicines: The Process of Drug Development
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Thomas Blok, MD
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          This course is designed to provide an opportunity to learn about the process of drug development from drug discovery through approval by regulatory authorities. In an eLearning format, students will gain greater understanding of the roles of individuals in all stages of making a new medicine available and be exposed to the nature of research in both the basic science and the clinical science aspects of the process. The nature of the review process by the FDA or other regulatory agencies will be examined as well. The course would be a great opportunity to explore non-traditional career paths for physicians.

          Objectives:

          Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

          1. Describe the drug discovery and development process
          2. Describe the regulatory authorities involved in overseeing drug development
          3. Identify how patients and practicing physicians participate
          4. Identify key stakeholders in the process and how they interact
          RES 7510 Selected Topics in Research
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

          Objectives:

          Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

          RES 7510 Selected Topics in Research - Section 1 Exploring Entrepreneurship
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Sandra Cochrane
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          This course is an introductory entrepreneurship course intended to provide participants with a basic knowledge of the entrepreneurial process and language used by business developers. It is intended for participants who are interested in understanding how commercial opportunities are evaluated and how entrepreneurial business are formed and launched. The principal focus of the course will be on the process for creation of new life science technology ventures, the ways that they come into being, and factors associated with their successes. We will analyze entrepreneurship very broadly and consider legitimate ideas oriented towards the formation of an enterprise that creates value by bringing people and resources together. This includes, but isn't limited to, a broad overview about identifying a winning business opportunity, launching a business, being resourceful in one’s business activities, dealing with the liability of newness and smallness, obtaining external funding, growing the organization, and harvesting the rewards of starting and owning a business.  The course is setup to include a mix of lectures, discussions, and independent exercises. In addition, we will have guest speakers join us in the classroom during the week to provide their perspective on the topics we are discussing.

          Offered: Various, starting 3/5/18

          Objectives:

          Upon copletion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Define the role of entrepreneurship within society and in your own personal life
          • Recognize the entrepreneurial potential within yourself and others in your enironment
          • Develop an appreciation for and understanding of opportunity discovery, value creation, and innovation
          • Improve your ability to think of new business ideas
          RES 7510 Selected Topics in Research - Section 2 Private Sector Research
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Sandra Cochrane
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          This course is an exploratory course intended to provide participants with a basic knowledge of the research activities and functions inside a startup biomedical technology company (pharmaceutical drug development, medical device, healthcare, IT, and/or contract research organization). It is intended for participants who are interested in understanding how medical expertise can be applied in a commercial research setting. The course is setup primarily as a shadowing activity, with students spending time in different client companies at the Innovation Center. There will be a set of introductory classroom events designed to provide background information regarding commercialization processes in healthcare, as well as final discussion sessions designed to review career options and mechanisms for medical professionals to engage in commercialization projects. In addition, we may have guest speakers join us during the week to provide their perspective on the topics we are discussing.

          Offered: Various, beginning 03/05/2018

          Objectives:

          Upon completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Define the role of research in an entrepreneurship environment
          • Recognize the entrepreneurial potential of a medical degree
          • Describe the operational functions of a biomedical start-up company
          SIM 7510 Selected Topics in Simulation - Section 1 Medical Simulation
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Lammers
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          This elective is designed to provide students additional exposure and experience in performing a variety of common medical procedures, using the educational resources of WMed’s Library and Simulation Center. Students will learn about, perform, practice and demonstrate student proficiency in five selected medical procedures, chosen from:

          • LMA use
          • Cricothyrotomy
          • Dental blocks
          • Eye irrigation
          • Coaptation splint
          • Long arm splint
          • Long leg splint
          • Short arm splint
          • Short leg splint
          • Sugar tong splint
          • Thumb spica splint
          • Ulnar gutter splint

          Education will be on-line via WMed’s access to Procedures Consult. Students may elect to repeat the elective once to gain experience with different procedures. Time expectations are estimated to total approximately 25-30 hours/week.

          Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

          Objectives:
          • Demonstrate knowledge of the indications, contraindications, complications, relevant anatomy, equipment needed, steps to perform and post-procedural care related to the five procedures selected.
          SURG 7510 Selected Topics in Surgery - Section 1 Orthopaedic Surgery Subspecialty
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          For students interested in surgical subspecialties, students will spend one on one time with faculty in the particular specialty. This will include operative and office time for a total time expectation of approximately 20-30 hours per week. Students will also attend weekly surgery department conferences.

          Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

          Objectives:
          • Basic disease processes in specialty
          • Path to matching in specialty
          • Research opportunities
          SURG 7510 Selected Topics in Surgery - Section 2 Thoracic Surgery Subspecialty
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          For students interested in surgical subspecialties, students will spend one on one time with faculty in the particular specialty. This will include operative and office time for a total time expectation of approximately 20-30 hours per week. Students will also attend weekly surgery department conferences.

          Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

          Objectives:
          • Basic disease processes in specialty
          • Path to matching in specialty
          • Research opportunities
          SURG 7510 Selected Topics in Surgery - Section 3 Trauma Surgery Subspecialty
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          For students interested in surgical subspecialties, students will spend one on one time with faculty in the particular specialty. This will include operative and office time for a total time expectation of approximately 20-30 hours per week. Students will also attend weekly surgery department conferences.

          Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

          Objectives:
          • Basic disease processes in specialty
          • Path to matching in specialty
          • Research opportunities
          SURG 7510 Selected Topics in Surgery - Section 4 Vascular Surgery Subspecialty
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          For students interested in surgical subspecialties, students will spend one on one time with faculty in the particular specialty. This will include operative and office time for a total time expectation of approximately 20-30 hours per week. Students will also attend weekly surgery department conferences.

          Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

          Objectives:
          • Basic disease processes in specialty
          • Path to matching in specialty
          • Research opportunities
          SURG 7510 Selected Topics in Surgery - Section 5 General Surgery Subspecialty
          Credits:
          0.5
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          For students interested in surgical subspecialties, students will spend one on one time with faculty in the particular specialty. This will include operative and office time for a total time expectation of approximately 20-30 hours per week. Students will also attend weekly surgery department conferences.

          Offered: During Year 1 and 2 elective week

          Objectives:
          • Basic disease processes in specialty
          • Path to matching in specialty
          • Research opportunities
          SURG 8110 Surgery
          Credits:
          8
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Honors/Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The third year core surgery clerkship will expose students to a variety of surgical experiences. The students will be assigned to the resident services at Bronson Methodist Hospital or Borgess Medical Center. They will have a preceptor that will mentor them and where the student will gain outpatient experience. They will be exposed to a variety of general surgery inpatient procedures and patients. The student will spend one week on night float to learn about management of emergent surgical diseases. 

          The students will be expected to attend academic surgical conferences and will have assigned readings. The summative evaluation will be composed of direct clinical observations by preceptors, oral examinations, a standardized patient and a bioskills portion. Upon the completion of the clerkship students should have a basic knowledge of many common surgical diseases and be comfortable knowing which patients need referral to a surgeon. The students should also be comfortable with sterile technique and basic suturing.

          Objectives:

          Upon completion of the Surgery Clerkship the third year student shall be able to:

          • Acquire History and Physical Exam skills, which lead to accurate assessment and planning of Surgical Care.
          • Demonstrate competent skill in basic surgical techniques knowing the proper application of those skills.
          • Describe common disease processes in standard treatments that include common core surgical considerations.
          • Develop knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors toward learning, which perpetuate lifelong learning, inquisitiveness and evidence-based practice.
          • Communicate with peers, mentors and allied health care personnel in an effective and professional manner.
          • Collaborate with peers, mentors and allied health care personnel in an effective and professional manner.
          • Describe typical postoperative care, including common complications of common core procedures.
          • Discuss the roles of medical students on the Surgery Clerkship and the role of Surgeons in health care delivery.
          • Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism and medical ethics in all patient encounters.
          • Demonstrate professional behaviors when interacting with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals).

           

          *Adapted from the University of Kansas School of Medicine’s reduced version of the Association for Surgical Education’s objectives.

          SURG 8110 Surgery
          Credits:
          11
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Honors/High Pass/Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The third year core surgery clerkship will expose students to a variety of surgical experiences. The students will be assigned to the resident services at Bronson Methodist Hospital or Borgess Medical Center. They will have a preceptor that will mentor them and where the student will gain outpatient experience. They will be exposed to a variety of general surgery inpatient procedures and patients. The student will spend one week on night float to learn about management of emergent surgical diseases. 

          The students will be expected to attend academic surgical conferences and will have assigned readings. The summative evaluation will be composed of direct clinical observations by preceptors, oral examinations, a standardized patient and a bioskills portion. Upon the completion of the clerkship students should have a basic knowledge of many common surgical diseases and be comfortable knowing which patients need referral to a surgeon. The students should also be comfortable with sterile technique and basic suturing.

          Objectives:
          • Acquire History and Physical Exam skills, which lead to accurate assessment and planning of Surgical Care.
          • Demonstrate competent skill in basic surgical techniques knowing the proper application of those skills.
          • Describe common disease processes in standard treatments that include common core surgical considerations.
          • Develop knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors toward learning, which perpetuate lifelong learning, inquisitiveness and evidence-based practice.
          • Communicate with peers, mentors and allied health care personnel in an effective and professional manner.
          • Collaborate with peers, mentors and allied health care personnel in an effective and professional manner.
          • Describe typical postoperative care, including common complications of common core procedures.
          • Discuss the roles of medical students on the Surgery Clerkship and the role of Surgeons in health care delivery.
          • Demonstrate behaviors consistent with the highest standards of professionalism and medical ethics in all patient encounters.
          • Demonstrate professional behaviors when interacting with patients, families, and all members of the health care team (including physicians and non-physician health professionals).

          *  Adapted from the University of Kansas School of Medicine’s reduced version of the Association for Surgical Education’s objectives.

          SURG 9210 Surgery Research
          Credits:
          4,5,6,7,8
          Directors:
          Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students may develop an individualized research plan of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

          Objectives:

          Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

          SURG 9220 Selected Topics in Surgery
          Credits:
          1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
          Directors:
          Approved faculty (Assistant Professor or higher)
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Students may develop an individualized course on a topic of their choice under the direction of a faculty member. Students should work with a faculty member to submit the form Elective Proposal to Educational Affairs at least eight weeks prior to the projected start date. The elective must be approved by the Associate Dean for Educational Affairs.

          Objectives:

          Specific objectives are developed by the student and supervising faculty, and customized for each rotation.

          SURG 9410 Cardiothoracic Surgery
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The cardiothoracic surgery rotation is designed for students who are interested in a general surgery or primary care residency. They will manage patients as independently as possible with oversight from an attending surgeon. They will be assigned to the cardiothoracic surgery service at either Borgess or Bronson. They will gain operative experience as well as have increased responsibilities managing patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting. They will be assigned a faculty mentor/preceptor at their assigned hospital.

          Offered: All weeks

          Objectives:

          After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion focused on a cardiothoracic patient
            • Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills (attentive to patient verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, need for interpretive services, demonstrates active listening skills).
            • Identify pertinent history elements in common presenting situations (coronary artery disease, lung cancer).
            • Obtain focused, pertinent histories in urgent, emergent and consultative setting.
            • Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to patient’s care.
          • Perform a complete and accurate physical exam in logical and fluid sequence.
            • Perform a clinically relevant, focused physical exam pertinent to the setting and purpose of patient visit.
            • Identify, describe and document abnormal physical exam findings.
            • Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques that reflect respect for patient privacy, comfort and safety.
          • Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter.
            • Synthesize essential information from the previous records, history, physical exam and initial diagnostic evaluations.
            • Integrate information as it emerges to continuously update differential diagnosis.
            • Integrate the scientific foundations of medicine with clinical reasoning skills to develop a differential diagnosis and a working diagnosis.
            • Engage with supervisors and team members for endorsement and verification of the working diagnosis in developing a management plan.
          • Recommend and interpret common diagnostic and screening tests for patients with suspected cardiothoracic disease.
            • Recommend first-line, cost-effective diagnostic evaluation for a patient with an acute or chronic common disorder.
            • Provide rationale for decision to order the test.
            • Interpret the results of basic diagnostic studies (both lab and imaging); know common lab values.
          • Enter and discuss orders and prescriptions for anticoagulation.
            • Demonstrate an understanding of the patient’s current condition and preferences that will underpin the orders being provided.
            • Demonstrate working knowledge of the protocol by which orders will be processed in the environment in which they are placing the orders.
            • Compose orders efficiently and effectively, such as by identifying the correct admission order set, selecting the correct fluid and electrolyte replacement orders, and recognizing the needs for deviations from standard order sets.
          • Document a clinical encounter in the patient record
            • Filter, organize, and prioritize information
            • Synthesize information into a cogent narrative
            • Record a problem list, working and differential diagnosis and plan
            • Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting)
          • Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter
            • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty
            • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation
          • Recognize a patient requiring urgent or emergent care and initiate evaluation and management
            • Recognize normal vital signs and variations that might be expected based on patient- and disease-specific factors
            • Recognize severity of a patient’s illness and indications for escalating care
            • Identify potential underlying etiologies of the patient’s decompensation
            • Communicate the situation to responding team members
          • Obtain informed consent for tests and/or procedures
            • Describes the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of basic procedures including cardiac bypass, valve replacement, pulmonary resection
          • Perform basic procedures such as assisting in surgery, suturing, reading EKGs, CXRs and CT scans of the chest
            • Demonstrate the technical (motor) skills required for the procedure
            • Understand and explain the anatomy, physiology, indications, risks, contraindications, benefits, alternatives, and potential complications of the procedure
          SURG 9420 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The plastic surgery rotation is designed for students who are interested in a plastic or general surgery residency. They will manage patients as independently as possible with oversight from an attending surgeon. They will be assigned to the plastic surgery service at either Borgess or Bronson. They will gain operative experience as well as have increased responsibilities managing patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting. They will be assigned a faculty mentor/preceptor at their assigned hospital.

          Offered: All weeks, 2 week duration

          Objectives:

          After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion focused on wound healing abilities such as cessation of tobacco and nutritional status.
            • Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills (attentive to patient verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, need for interpretive services, demonstrates active listening skills).
            • Identify pertinent history elements in common presenting situations.
            • Obtain focused, pertinent histories in urgent, emergent and consultative setting.
            • Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to patient’s care.
          • Perform a complete and accurate physical exam in logical and fluid sequence.
            • Perform a clinically relevant, focused physical exam pertinent to the setting and purpose of patient visit.
            • Identify, describe and document abnormal physical exam findings.
            • Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques that reflect respect for patient privacy, comfort and safety.
          • Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter.
            • Synthesize essential information from the previous records, history, physical exam and initial diagnostic evaluations.
            • Integrate
            • Integrate the scientific foundations of medicine with clinical reasoning skills to develop a differential diagnosis and a working diagnosis.
            • Engage with supervisors and team members for endorsement and verification of the working diagnosis in developing a management plan.
          • Document a clinical encounter in the patient record.
            • Filter, organize, and prioritize information.
            • Synthesize information into a cogent narrative.
            • Record a problem list, working and differential diagnosis and plan.
            • Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting).
          • Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter.
            • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty.
            • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation.
          • Obtain informed consent for tests and/or procedures as appropriate.
            • Describes the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of basic procedures.
          • Perform basic procedures such as assisting in surgery, suturing wounds, debridements, and wound VAC changes.
            • Demonstrate the technical (motor) skills required for the procedure.
            • Understand and explain the anatomy, physiology, indications, risks, contraindications, benefits, alternatives, and potential complications of the procedure.
          SURG 9430 Ophthalmology
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The ophthalmology rotation is designed for students who are interested in an ophthalmology or primary care residency. They will manage patients as independently as possible with oversight from an attending surgeon. They will be assigned to the general surgery service at either Borgess or Bronson. They will gain operative experience as well as have increased responsibilities managing patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting. They will be assigned a faculty mentor/preceptor at their assigned hospital.

          Offered: All weeks

          Objectives:
          • Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion
            • Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills (attentive to patient verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, need for interpretive services, demonstrates active listening skills)
            • Identify pertinent history elements in common presenting situations
            • Obtain focused, pertinent histories in urgent, emergent and consultative setting
            • Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to patient’s care
          • Perform a complete and accurate physical exam in logical and fluid sequence
            • Perform a clinically relevant, focused ophthalmologic exam pertinent to the setting and purpose of patient visit
            • Identify, describe and document abnormal physical exam findings
            • Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques that reflect respect for patient privacy, comfort and safety
          • Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter
            • Synthesize essential information from the previous records, history, physical exam and initial diagnostic evaluations
            • Integrate information as it emerges to continuously update differential diagnosis
            • Integrate the scientific foundations of medicine with clinical reasoning skills to develop a differential diagnosis and a working diagnosis
            • Engage with supervisors and team members for endorsement and verification of the working diagnosis in developing a management plan
          • Recommend and interpret common diagnostic and screening tests
            • Recommend first-line, cost-effective diagnostic evaluation for a patient with an acute or chronic common disorder
            • Provide rationale for decision to order the test
            • Interpret the results of basic diagnostic studies (both lab and imaging); know common lab values
          • Enter and discuss orders and prescriptions of eye drops
            • Demonstrate an understanding of the patient’s current condition and preferences that will underpin the orders being provided
            • Demonstrate working knowledge of the protocol by which orders will be processed in the environment in which they are placing the orders
            • Compose orders efficiently and effectively, such as by identifying the correct admission order set, selecting the correct fluid and electrolyte replacement orders, and recognizing the needs for deviations from standard order sets
          • Document a clinical encounter in the patient record
            • Filter, organize, and prioritize information
            • ynthesize information into a cogent narrative
            • Record a problem list, working and differential diagnosis and plan
            • Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting)
          • Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter
            • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty
            • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation
          • Recognize a patient requiring urgent or emergent care and initiate evaluation and management
            • Recognize normal vital signs and variations that might be expected based on patient- and disease-specific factors
            • Recognize severity of a patient’s illness and indications for escalating care
            • Identify potential underlying etiologies of the patient’s decompensation
            • Communicate the situation to responding team members
          • Obtain informed consent for tests and/or procedures such as cataract extraction,
            • Describes the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of basic procedures
          • Perform basic procedures such as assisting in surgery and ophthalmologic examination
            • Demonstrate the technical (motor) skills required for the procedure
            • Understand and explain the anatomy, physiology, indications, risks, contraindications, benefits, alternatives, and potential complications of the procedure
          SURG 9440 Neurosurgery
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The neurosurgery rotation is designed for students who are interested in a neurosurgery, general surgery, orthopedic surgery or primary care residency. They will manage patients as independently as possible with oversight from an attending surgeon. They will be assigned to a preceptor at either Borgess or Bronson. They will gain operative experience as well as have increased responsibilities managing patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting.

          Offered: All weeks

          Objectives:

          After the completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion
            • Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills (attentive to patient verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, need for interpretive services, demonstrates active listening skills)
            • Identify pertinent history elements in common presenting situations with specific focus on neurologic complaints
            • Obtain focused, pertinent histories in urgent, emergent and consultative setting
            • Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to patient’s care
          • Perform a complete and accurate physical exam in logical and fluid sequence
            • Perform a clinically relevant, focused physical exam pertinent to the setting and purpose of patient visit
            • Identify, describe and document abnormal physical exam findings with specific focus on neurologic examination
            • Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques that reflect respect for patient privacy, comfort and safety
          • Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter
            • Synthesize essential information from the previous records, history, physical exam and initial diagnostic evaluations
            • Integrate information as it emerges to continuously update differential diagnosis
            • Integrate the scientific foundations of medicine with clinical reasoning skills to develop a differential diagnosis and a working diagnosis
            • Engage with supervisors and team members for endorsement and verification of the working diagnosis in developing a management plan
          • Recommend and interpret common diagnostic and screening tests
            • Recommend first-line, cost-effective diagnostic evaluation for a patient with an acute or chronic common disorder
            • Provide rationale for decision to order the test
            • Interpret the results of basic diagnostic studies (both lab and imaging); know common lab values
          • Document a clinical encounter in the patient record
            • Filter, organize, and prioritize information
            • Synthesize information into a cogent narrative
            • Record a problem list, working and differential diagnosis and plan
            • Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting)
          • Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter
            • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty
            • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation
          • Recognize a patient requiring urgent or emergent care and initiate evaluation and management
            • Recognize normal vital signs and variations that might be expected based on patient- and disease-specific factors
            • Recognize severity of a patient’s illness and indications for escalating care
            • Identify potential underlying etiologies of the patient’s decompensation
            • Communicate the situation to responding team members
          • Obtain informed consent for tests and/or procedures
            • Describes the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of basic procedures as appropriate
          • Perform basic procedures such as assisting in surgery, suturing wounds, reading films and obtaining a complete neurologic examination
            • Demonstrate the technical (motor) skills required for the procedure
            • Understand and explain the anatomy, physiology, indications, risks, contraindications, benefits, alternatives, and potential complications of the procedure
          SURG 9450 Otolaryngology
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The otolaryngology rotation is designed for students who are interested in a general surgery or primary care residency. They will manage patients as independently as possible with oversight from an attending surgeon. They will be assigned to an otolaryngologist at either Borgess or Bronson. They will gain operative experience as well as have increased responsibilities managing patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting. 

          Offered: All weeks

          Objectives:

          After completion of this elective, all students will be able to:

          • Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion
            • Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills (attentive to patient verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, need for interpretive services, demonstrates active listening skills)
            • Identify pertinent history elements in common presenting situations (vertigo, ear pain, recurrent sinus infections, head and neck malignancies)
            • Obtain focused, pertinent histories in urgent, emergent and consultative setting
            • Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to patient’s care
          • Perform a complete and accurate physical exam in logical and fluid sequence
            • Perform a clinically relevant, focused physical exam of the head and neck pertinent to the setting and purpose of patient visit
            • Identify, describe and document abnormal physical exam findings
            • Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques that reflect respect for patient privacy, comfort and safety
          • Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter
            • Synthesize essential information from the previous records, history, physical exam and initial diagnostic evaluations
            • Integrate information as it emerges to continuously update differential diagnosis
            • Integrate the scientific foundations of medicine with clinical reasoning skills to develop a differential diagnosis and a working diagnosis
            • Engage with supervisors and team members for endorsement and verification of the working diagnosis in developing a management plan
          • Recommend and interpret common diagnostic and screening tests
            • Recommend first-line, cost-effective diagnostic evaluation for a patient with an acute or chronic common disorder
            • Provide rationale for decision to order the test
            • Interpret the results of basic diagnostic studies (both lab and imaging); know common lab values
          • Document a clinical encounter in the patient record
            • Filter, organize, and prioritize information
            • Synthesize information into a cogent narrative
            • Record a problem list, working and differential diagnosis and plan
            • Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting)
          • Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter
            • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty
            • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation
          • Recognize a patient requiring urgent or emergent care and initiate evaluation and management
            • Recognize normal vital signs and variations that might be expected based on patient- and disease-specific factors
            • Recognize severity of a patient’s illness and indications for escalating care
            • Identify potential underlying etiologies of the patient’s decompensation
            • Communicate the situation to responding team members
          • Obtain informed consent for tests and/or procedures such as tonsillectomy and tympanostomy tubes
            • Describes the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of basic procedures
          • Perform basic procedures such as assisting in surgery and suturing wounds
            • Demonstrate the technical (motor) skills required for the procedure
            • Understand and explain the anatomy, physiology, indications, risks, contraindications, benefits, alternatives, and potential complications of the procedure
          SURG 9460 Urologic Surgery
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The urology rotation is designed for students who are interested in a urology or primary care residency. They will manage patients as independently as possible with oversight from an attending surgeon. They will gain operative experience as well as have increased responsibilities managing patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting. They will be assigned a faculty mentor/preceptor at their assigned hospital.

          Offered: All weeks

          Objectives:

          After completion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion focusing on urologic conditions
            • Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills (attentive to patient verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, need for interpretive services, demonstrates active listening skills)
            • Identify pertinent history elements in common presenting situations
            • Obtain focused, pertinent histories in urgent, emergent and consultative setting
            • Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to patient’s care
          • Perform a complete and accurate physical exam in logical and fluid sequence focused on genitourinary examination
            • Perform a clinically relevant, focused physical exam pertinent to the setting and purpose of patient visit
            • Identify, describe and document abnormal physical exam findings
            • Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques that reflect respect for patient privacy, comfort and safety
          • Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter
            • Synthesize essential information from the previous records, history, physical exam and initial diagnostic evaluations
            • Integrate information as it emerges to continuously update differential diagnosis
            • Integrate the scientific foundations of medicine with clinical reasoning skills to develop a differential diagnosis and a working diagnosis
            • Engage with supervisors and team members for endorsement and verification of the working diagnosis in developing a management plan
          • Recommend and interpret common diagnostic and screening tests including interpreting urinalysis
            • Recommend first-line, cost-effective diagnostic evaluation for a patient with an acute or chronic common disorder
            • Provide rationale for decision to order the test
            • Interpret the results of basic diagnostic studies (both lab and imaging); know common lab values
          • Document a clinical encounter in the patient record
            • Filter, organize, and prioritize information
            • Synthesize information into a cogent narrative
            • Record a problem list, working and differential diagnosis and plan
            • Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting)
          • Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter
            • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty
            • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation
          • Recognize a patient requiring urgent or emergent care and initiate evaluation and management
            • Recognize normal vital signs and variations that might be expected based on patient- and disease-specific factors
            • Recognize severity of a patient’s illness and indications for escalating care
            • Identify potential underlying etiologies of the patient’s decompensation
            • Communicate the situation to responding team members
          • Obtain informed consent for tests and/or procedures as appropriate
            • Describes the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of basic procedures
          • Perform basic procedures such as assisting in surgery and cystoscopy
            • Demonstrate the technical (motor) skills required for the procedure
            • Understand and explain the anatomy, physiology, indications, risks, contraindications, benefits, alternatives, and potential complications of the procedure
          SURG 9470 Vascular Surgery
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The vascular surgery rotation is designed for students who are interested in vascular or general surgery residency or primary care. They will learn to manage both arterial and venous disease under the supervision of a vascular surgeon. They will spend either two or four weeks assigned to the vascular surgery service. They will gain operative experience as well as learn to manage patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting. They will be assigned a faculty mentor/preceptor or group.

          Offered: All weeks

          Objectives:

          After competion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion
            • Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills (attentive to patient verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, need for interpretive services, demonstrates active listening skills).
            • Identify pertinent history elements in common presenting situations with focus on vascular disease (arterial occlusive disease, aneurysmal disease, venous stasis and vascular access).
            • Obtain focused, pertinent histories in urgent, emergent and consultative setting with focus on vascular disease (arterial occlusive disease, aneurysmal disease, venous stasis and vascular access).
            • Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to patient’s care.
          • Perform a complete and accurate physical exam in logical and fluid sequence
            • Perform a clinically relevant, focused physical exam pertinent to the setting and purpose of patient visit with focus on vascular examination (pulses, skin changes, ABIs).
            • Identify, describe and document abnormal physical exam findings.
            • Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques that reflect respect for patient privacy, comfort and safety.
          • Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter
            • Synthesize essential information from the previous records, history, physical exam and initial diagnostic evaluations.
            • Integrate information as it emerges to continuously update differential diagnosis.
            • Integrate the scientific foundations of medicine with clinical reasoning skills to develop a differential diagnosis and a working diagnosis.
            • Engage with supervisors and team members for endorsement and verification of the working diagnosis in developing a management plan.
          • Recommend and interpret common diagnostic and screening tests by spending at least one day in the vascular ultrasound lab
            • Recommend first-line, cost-effective diagnostic evaluation for a patient with an acute or chronic common disorder.
            • Provide rationale for decision to order the test.
            • Interpret the results of basic diagnostic studies (both lab and imaging); know common lab values.
          • Enter and discuss orders and prescriptions with respect to anticoagulation
            • Demonstrate an understanding of the patient’s current condition and preferences that will underpin the orders being provided.
          • Document a clinical encounter in the patient record
            • Filter, organize, and prioritize information.
            • Synthesize information into a cogent narrative.
            • Record a problem list, working and differential diagnosis and plan.
            • Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting).
          • Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter
            • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty
            • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation
          • Recognize a patient requiring urgent or emergent care and initiate evaluation and management such as acute arterial thrombosis, ruptured or leaking aneurysm, venous thromboembolism
            • Recognize normal vital signs and variations that might be expected based on patient- and disease-specific factors
            • Recognize severity of a patient’s illness and indications for escalating care
            • Identify potential underlying etiologies of the patient’s decompensation
            • Communicate the situation to responding team members
          • Obtain informed consent for tests and/or procedures
            • Describe the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of basic procedures such as endovascular stenting or aneurysm repair, carotid endarterectomy
          • Perform basic procedures such as assisting in surgery, suturing, debridements, obtaining a thorough vascular exam, obtaining vascular access
            • Demonstrate the technical (motor) skills required for the procedure
            • Understand and explain the anatomy, physiology, indications, risks, contraindications, benefits, alternatives, and potential complications of the procedure
          SURG 9480 Breast Surgery
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          The breast surgery rotation is designed for students who are interested in a general surgery residency or primary care. They will learn to manage both benign and malignant breast disease under the supervision of a breast surgeon. They will spend either two or four weeks assigned to the breast surgery service. They will gain operative experience as well as learn to manage patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting. They will be assigned a faculty mentor/preceptor or group.

          Offered: All weeks

          Objectives:

          After competion of this elective, each student will be able to:

          • Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion.
            • Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills (attentive to patient verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, need for interpretive services, demonstrates active listening skills).
            • Identify pertinent history elements in common presenting situations with focus on breast disease (mastitis, abscesses, benign disease and maligancies).
            • Obtain focused, pertinent histories in urgent, emergent and consultative setting with focus on breast disease (mastitis, abscesses, benign disease and maligancies).
            • Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to patient’s care.
          • Perform a complete and accurate physical exam in logical and fluid sequence.
            • Perform a clinically relevant, focused physical exam pertinent to the setting and purpose of patient visit with focus on breast examination (masses, skin changes, lymphadenopathy).
            • Identify, describe and document abnormal physical exam findings.
            • Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques that reflect respect for patient privacy, comfort and safety.
          • Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter.
            • Synthesize essential information from the previous records, history, physical exam and initial diagnostic evaluations.
            • Integrate information as it emerges to continuously update differential diagnosis.
            • Integrate the scientific foundations of medicine with clinical reasoning skills to develop a differential diagnosis and a working diagnosis.
            • Engage with supervisors and team members for endorsement and verification of the working diagnosis in developing a management plan.
          • Recommend and interpret common diagnostic and screening tests by spending at least one day in the breast imaging suite/with radiologist.
            • Recommend first-line, cost-effective diagnostic evaluation for a patient with an acute or chronic common disorder.
            • Provide rationale for decision to order the test.
            • Interpret the results of basic diagnostic studies (both lab and imaging); know common lab values.
          • Enter and discuss orders and prescriptions with respect to hormonal and chemotherapy options for breast malignancies.
            • Demonstrate an understanding of the patient’s current condition and preferences that will underpin the orders being provided.
          • Document a clinical encounter in the patient record.
            • Filter, organize, and prioritize information.
            • Synthesize information into a cogent narrative.
            • Record a problem list, working and differential diagnosis and plan.
            • Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting).
          • Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter.
            • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty.
            • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation.
          • Obtain informed consent for tests and/or procedures.
            • Describe the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of basic procedures such as partial mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.
            • Describe the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy for breast malignancies with specific attention to estrogen, progesterone and Her-2 receptors.
          • Perform basic procedures such as assisting in surgery, suturing, ultrasound and breast biopsies.
            • Demonstrate the technical (motor) skills required for the procedure.
            • Understand and explain the anatomy, physiology, indications, risks, contraindications, benefits, alternatives, and potential complications of the procedure.
          SURG 9510 Wound Care
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Wound care involves a multidisciplinary approach both in the inpatient and outpatient settings. Wound care clinics have physician specialists in surgery and infectious disease, wound care nurse specialists, and sometimes social work/nurse care management professionals. This elective may also be taken as a surgery elective (see surgery electives). The student may be assigned to round with the wound care nurse in the inpatient setting or may see patients in the wound care clinic.

          Offered: All weeks

          Objectives:

          The student will be familiar with the following topics and conditions associated with wound care

          1. Characterize and describe a wound and, if appropriate, stage wounds (e.g. decubitus ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers)
          2. Assessment of “whole patient” as systemic problems may impact wound healing (e.g., malnutrition, peripheral vascular disease, lymphedema, COPD, anemia, diabetes)
          3. Type of debridement (if necessary), would cleansing, topical products, and dressing for wounds observed during the elective
          4. Lymphedema
          SURG 9710 Advanced General Surgery
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Advanced hospital clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume greater responsibility for patient care of the hospitalized patient, with oversight from supervising residents and attending physicians. Students expand upon competencies they develop during the third year as they care for one to two patients at a time. Additional expectations include responsibility for developing management plans, writing orders, patient handovers and transfers of care, recognizing the policies that support patient safety, and developing competency in procedures that they will perform independently as residents. Fourth year students also assist in teaching third year students.

          The advanced general surgery rotation is designed for students who are interested in a general surgery residency. They will manage patients as independently as possible with oversight from the general surgery chief resident and an attending surgeon. They will be assigned to the general surgery service at either Borgess or Bronson. Assistance with teaching 3rd year students will also be expected. They will gain operative experience as well as have increased responsibilities managing patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting. They will be assigned a faculty mentor/preceptor at their assigned hospital.

          Offered:  Not offered in July

          Objectives:

          Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

          • Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion.
            • Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills (attentive to patient verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, need for interpretive services, demonstrates active listening skills).
            • Identify pertinent history elements in common presenting situations.
            • Obtain focused, pertinent histories in urgent, emergent and consultative setting.
            • Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to patient’s care.
          • Perform a complete and accurate physical exam in logical and fluid sequence.
            • Perform a clinically relevant, focused physical exam pertinent to the setting and purpose of patient visit.
            • Identify, describe and document abnormal physical exam findings.
            • Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques that reflect respect for patient privacy, comfort and safety.
          • Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter.
            • Synthesize essential information from the previous records, history, physical exam and initial diagnostic evaluations.
            • Integrate
            • Integrate the scientific foundations of medicine with clinical reasoning skills to develop a differential diagnosis and a working diagnosis.
            • Engage with supervisors and team members for endorsement and verification of the working diagnosis in developing a management plan.
          • Recommend and interpret common diagnostic and screening tests.
            • Recommend first-line, cost-effective diagnostic evaluation for a patient with an acute or chronic common disorder.
            • Provide rationale for decision to order the test.
            • Interpret the results of basic diagnostic studies (both lab and imaging); know common lab values.
          • Enter and discuss orders and prescriptions.
            • Demonstrate
            • Demonstrate working knowledge of the protocol by which orders will be processed in the environment in which they are placing the orders.
            • Compose orders efficiently and effectively, such as by identifying the correct admission order set, selecting the correct fluid and electrolyte replacement orders, and recognizing the needs for deviations from standard order sets.
          • Document a clinical encounter in the patient record.
            • Filter, organize, and prioritize information.
            • Synthesize information into a cogent narrative.
            • Record a problem list, working and differential diagnosis and plan.
            • Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting).
          • Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter.
            • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty.
            • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation.
          • Give or receive a patient handover to transition care responsibly.
            • Conduct handover communication that minimizes known threats to transitions of care (e.g., by ensuring you engage the listener, avoiding distractions).
            • Document—and update—an electronic handover tool.
            • Provide succinct verbal communication that conveys, at a minimum, illness severity, situation awareness, action planning, and contingency planning.
          • Recognize a patient requiring urgent or emergent care and initiate evaluation and management.
            • Recognize normal vital signs and variations that might be expected based on patient- and disease-specific factors.
            • Recognize severity of a patient’s illness and indications for escalating care.
            • Identify potential underlying etiologies of the patient’s decompensation.
            • Communicate the situation to responding team members.
          • Obtain informed consent for tests and/or procedures.
            • Describes the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of basic procedures.
          • Perform basic procedures such as assisting in surgery, suturing wounds, debridements, wound VAC changes, incision and drainage of abscesses.
            • Demonstrate the technical (motor) skills required for the procedure.
            • Understand and explain the anatomy, physiology, indications, risks, contraindications, benefits, alternatives, and potential complications of the procedure.

          Advanced Clerkship Goals:

          1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
          2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills
          3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
          4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
          5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
          6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
          7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
          8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs, tests).
          9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
          10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
          11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
          12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
          13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
          14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
          15. Provide key aspects of the ideal handover to the recipient, including verbalizing the patient's illness severity and/or providing action planning and/or contingency planning.
          16. Demonstrates awareness of known threats to handover communication (e.g., interruptions and distractions) by paying attention to the timing and location of the handover communication.
          17. Acts as an active and integrate member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
          18. Understands the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
          19. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
          20. Adhere to institutional procedures and protocols regarding escalation of patient care.
          21. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
          22. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
          23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
            • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
            • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures
            • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
            • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
          24. Identify real potential errors.
          25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, hand washing).
          26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
          SURG 9712 Advanced Pediatric Surgery
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Advanced hospital clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume greater responsibility for patient care of the hospitalized patient, with oversight from supervising residents and attending physicians. Students expand upon competencies they develop during the third year as they care for one to two patients at a time. Additional expectations include responsibility for developing management plans, writing orders, patient handovers and transfers of care, recognizing the policies that support patient safety, and developing competency in procedures that they will perform independently as residents. Fourth year students also assist in teaching third year students.

          The advanced pediatric surgery rotation is designed for students who are interested in a general surgery, pediatric or primary care residency. They will manage patients as independently as possible with oversight from an attending surgeon. They will be assigned to the pediatric surgery service at Bronson. They will gain operative experience as well as have increased responsibilities managing patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting. They will be assigned a faculty mentor/preceptor but will work with everyone on the pediatric surgery team.

          Offered: Not offered in July

          Objectives:
          • Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion.
            • Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills (attentive to patient verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, need for interpretive services, demonstrates active listening skills).
            • Identify pertinent history elements in common presenting situations.
            • Obtain focused, pertinent histories in urgent, emergent and consultative setting.
            • Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to patient’s care.
          • Perform a complete and accurate physical exam in logical and fluid sequence.
            • Perform a clinically relevant, focused physical exam pertinent to the setting and purpose of patient visit.
            • Identify, describe and document abnormal physical exam findings.
            • Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques that reflect respect for patient privacy, comfort and safety.
          • Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter.
            • Synthesize essential information from the previous records, history, physical exam and initial diagnostic evaluations.
            • Integrate
            • Integrate the scientific foundations of medicine with clinical reasoning skills to develop a differential diagnosis and a working diagnosis.
            • Engage with supervisors and team members for endorsement and verification of the working diagnosis in developing a management plan.
          • Recommend and interpret common diagnostic and screening tests.
            • Recommend first-line, cost-effective diagnostic evaluation for a patient with an acute or chronic common disorder.
            • Provide rationale for decision to order the test.
            • Interpret the results of basic diagnostic studies (both lab and imaging); know common lab values.
          • Enter and discuss orders and prescriptions as appropriate.
            • Demonstrate
            • Demonstrate working knowledge of the protocol by which orders will be processed in the environment in which they are placing the orders.
            • Compose orders efficiently and effectively, such as by identifying the correct admission order set, selecting the correct fluid and electrolyte replacement orders, and recognizing the needs for deviations from standard order sets.
          • Document a clinical encounter in the patient record.
            • Filter, organize, and prioritize information.
            • ynthesize information into a cogent narrative.
            • Record a problem list, working and differential diagnosis and plan.
            • Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting).
          • Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter.
            • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty.
            • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation.
            • Situation awareness, action planning, and contingency planning.
          • Recognize a patient requiring urgent or emergent care and initiate evaluation and management.
            • Recognize normal vital signs and variations that might be expected based on patient- and disease-specific factors.
            • Recognize severity of a patient’s illness and indications for escalating care.
            • Identify potential underlying etiologies of the patient’s decompensation.
            • Communicate the situation to responding team members.
          • Obtain informed consent for tests and/or procedures as appropriate.
            • Describes the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of basic procedures.
          • Perform basic procedures such as assisting in surgery, suturing wounds, debridements, wound VAC changes, incision and drainage of abscesses.
            • Demonstrate the technical (motor) skills required for the procedure.
            • Understand and explain the anatomy, physiology, indications, risks, contraindications, benefits, alternatives, and potential complications of the procedure.

          Advanced Clerkship Goals:

          1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
          2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills
          3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
          4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
          5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
          6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
          7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
          8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs, tests).
          9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
          10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
          11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
          12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
          13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
          14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
          15. Provide key aspects of the ideal handover to the recipient, including verbalizing the patient's illness severity and/or providing action planning and/or contingency planning.
          16. Demonstrates awareness of known threats to handover communication (e.g., interruptions and distractions) by paying attention to the timing and location of the handover communication.
          17. Acts as an active and integrate member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
          18. Understands the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
          19. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
          20. Adhere to institutional procedures and protocols regarding escalation of patient care.
          21. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
          22. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
          23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
            • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
            • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures
            • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
            • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
          24. Identify real potential errors.
          25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, hand washing).
          26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.
          SURG 9714 Advanced Surgical Oncology
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Miller
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Advanced hospital clerkships provide the opportunity for students to assume greater responsibility for patient care of the hospitalized patient, with oversight from supervising residents and attending physicians. Students expand upon competencies they develop during the third year as they care for one to two patients at a time. Additional expectations include responsibility for developing management plans, writing orders, patient handovers and transfers of care, recognizing the policies that support patient safety, and developing competency in procedures that they will perform independently as residents. Fourth year students also assist in teaching third year students.

          The surgical oncology rotation is designed for students who are interested in a general surgery or primary care residency. They will manage patients as independently as possible with oversight from an attending surgeon. They will be assigned to the surgical oncology service through West Michigan Cancer Center. They will gain operative experience as well as have increased responsibilities managing patients in the inpatient and outpatient setting.

          Objectives:
          1. Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion
            • Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills (attentive to patient verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, need for interpretive services, demonstrates active listening skills)
            • Identify pertinent history elements in common presenting situations
            • Obtain focused, pertinent histories in urgent, emergent and consultative setting
            • Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to patient’s care
          2. Perform a complete and accurate physical exam in logical and fluid sequence
            • Perform a clinically relevant, focused physical exam pertinent to the setting and purpose of patient visit
            • Identify, describe and document abnormal physical exam findings
            • Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques that reflect respect for patient privacy, comfort and safety
          3. Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter
            • Synthesize essential information from the previous records, history, physical exam and initial diagnostic evaluations
            • Integrate information as it emerges to continuously update differential diagnosis
            • Integrate the scientific foundations of medicine with clinical reasoning skills to develop a differential diagnosis and a working diagnosis
            • Engage with supervisors and team members for endorsement and verification of the working diagnosis in developing a management plan
          4. Recommend and interpret common diagnostic and screening tests
            • Recommend first-line, cost-effective diagnostic evaluation for a patient with an acute or chronic common disorder
            • Provide rationale for decision to order the test
            • Interpret the results of basic diagnostic studies (both lab and imaging); know common lab values
          5. Enter and discuss orders and prescriptions
            • Demonstrate an understanding of the patient’s current condition and preferences that will underpin the orders being provided
            • Demonstrate working knowledge of the protocol by which orders will be processed in the environment in which they are placing the orders
            • Compose orders efficiently and effectively, such as by identifying the correct admission order set, selecting the correct fluid and electrolyte replacement orders, and recognizing the needs for deviations from standard order sets
          6. Document a clinical encounter in the patient record
            • Filter, organize, and prioritize information
            • Synthesize information into a cogent narrative
            • Record a problem list, working and differential diagnosis and plan
            • Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting)
          7. Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter
            • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty
            • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation
          8. Recognize a patient requiring urgent or emergent care and initiate evaluation and management
            • Recognize normal vital signs and variations that might be expected based on patient and disease-specific factors
            • Recognize severity of a patient’s illness and indications for escalating care
            • Identify potential underlying etiologies of the patient’s decompensation
            • Communicate the situation to responding team members
          9. Obtain informed consent for tests and/or procedures as appropriate
            • Describes the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of basic procedures
          10. Perform basic procedures such as assisting in surgery
            • Demonstrate the technical (motor) skills required for the procedure
            • Understand and explain the anatomy, physiology, indications

          Advanced Clerkship Goals:

          1. Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to a patient's care.
          2. Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills
          3. Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques.
          4. Articulate a management plan based on the well-reasoned differential and working diagnoses.
          5. Provide complete and succinct documentation so that other providers have evidence of your clinical reasoning to ensure continuity of care and patient safety.
          6. Recommend reliable, cost-effective tests when indicated for screening or evaluating patients with common acute or chronic conditions.
          7. Routinely reflect on how the results of a test will influence clinical decision making and, conversely, on the potential consequences of not doing a test.
          8. Articulate the risks and benefits of what you are ordering (e.g., drugs, tests).
          9. Consistently discuss diagnostic plans with the patient, and provide evidence that patient preferences have been solicited and factored into decision making.
          10. Distinguish common, insignificant abnormalities from clinically important abnormalities.
          11. Provides documentation that is comprehensive and contains important information without unnecessary details or redundancies.
          12. Filter, synthesize, and prioritize information and recognize patterns, resulting in a concise, well organized, and accurate presentation.
          13. Adjust oral presentations for the receiver of information (e.g., faculty, patient/family, team members) and for the context of the presentation (e.g., emergent versus stable).
          14. Routinely identify the need to ask for help or seek new information in the context of the clinical setting, based on awareness of one's own knowledge gaps and patient needs.
          15. Provide key aspects of the ideal handover to the recipient, including verbalizing the patient's illness severity and/or providing action planning and/or contingency planning.
          16. Demonstrates awareness of known threats to handover communication (e.g., interruptions and distractions) by paying attention to the timing and location of the handover communication.
          17. Acts as an active and integrate member of the team who in most situations prioritizes team goals over one's own professional goals.
          18. Understands the roles of other team members, seek their counsel, actively listen to their recommendations, and incorporate them into practice.
          19. Interpret common test results to anticipate and respond to early clinical deterioration.
          20. Adhere to institutional procedures and protocols regarding escalation of patient care.
          21. Understand the importance of informed consent to rapport building and shared decision making.
          22. Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of informed consent generally (indications, contraindications, risks, benefits, alternatives) and the specifics of these elements for the procedures for which consent is being sought.
          23. Demonstrate patient-centered skills in performing procedures:
            • Avoid medical jargon such that patients are able to verbalize understanding of the procedure.
            • Participate in shared decision making with patients about procedures
            • Have confidence commensurate with level of knowledge and skill that puts patients at ease.
            • Simultaneously pay attention to both the procedure and the patient's emotional response.
          24. Identify real potential errors.
          25. Perform common safety behaviors (e.g., universal precautions, hand washing).
          26. Understand the importance of error prevention both to individual patients and to systems.

           

          SURG 9810 Advanced Trauma and Surgery Critical Care
          Credits:
          2,4
          Directors:
          Curtiss, Maltz
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          This rotation offers students the opportunity to accelerate their learning by spending a four week block in the intensive care unit.  The rotation provides the student the opportunity to diagnose and treat of a wide range of clinical conditions common among critically ill patients. Students will enhance their knowledge and skill in caring for the sickest patients in the hospital.  The Clinical site utilized for the Pediatric Advanced Critical Care Clerkship is the pediatric ICU at Bronson Children’s Hospital.  Students will be paired with interns and residents, and will participate in the ICU in a dedicated fashion; the intent is for students to function as a “subintern” and will result in a high level learning experience. 

          Students will be expected to participate on rounds, will continue to perfect the gathering and synthesis of data, and expand on their ability to make diagnoses and develop care plans.  The student will be expected to gather a history based upon interview of patients/families, evaluate laboratory and radiographic material, and generate differential diagnoses and management plans.  They will also be expected to improve their documentation skills by writing patient notes in the electronic medical record.

          The advanced trauma and critical care surgery rotation is designed for students who are interested in a general surgery or other surgery subspecialty residency. They will manage patients as independently as possible with oversight from the general surgery senior resident on service and an attending surgeon. They will be assigned to the trauma/critical care surgery service at either Borgess or Bronson. Assistance with teaching 3rd year students will also be expected. They will gain operative experience as well as have increased responsibilities managing patients in the inpatient critical care and trauma bay settings. They will be assigned a faculty mentor/preceptor at their assigned hospital.

          This is a 4 week block rotation, and will correspond to the calendar set forth by the Western Michigan University School of Medicine. This varies on the time of year and the rotation site. The trauma/surgical ICU consists of primarily surgical-related problemd.

          Offered:  Not offered in July

          Objectives:

          Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

          • Obtain a complete and accurate history in an organized fashion
            • Demonstrate patient-centered interview skills (attentive to patient verbal and nonverbal cues, patient/family culture, need for interpretive services, demonstrates active listening skills)
            • Identify pertinent history elements in common presenting situations
            • Obtain focused, pertinent histories in urgent, emergent and consultative setting
            • Demonstrate clinical reasoning in gathering focused information relevant to patient’s care
          • Perform a complete and accurate physical exam in logical and fluid sequence
            • Perform a clinically relevant, focused physical exam pertinent to the trauma or critically ill patient
            • Identify, describe and document abnormal physical exam findings with specific focus on the ABCs of trauma
            • Demonstrate patient-centered examination techniques that reflect respect for patient privacy, comfort and safety
          • Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter
            • Synthesize essential information from the previous records, history, physical exam and initial diagnostic evaluations with specific focus on the ABCs of trauma
            • Integrate information as it emerges to continuously update differential diagnosis
            • Integrate the scientific foundations of medicine with clinical reasoning skills to develop a differential diagnosis and a working diagnosis
            • Engage with supervisors and team members for endorsement and verification of the working diagnosis in developing a management plan
          • Recommend and interpret common diagnostic and screening tests
            • Recommend first-line, cost-effective diagnostic evaluation for a patient with an acute or chronic common disorder
            • Provide rationale for decision to order the test
            • Interpret the results of basic diagnostic studies (both lab and imaging); know common lab values
          • Enter and discuss orders and prescriptions
            • Demonstrate an understanding of the patient’s current condition and preferences that will underpin the orders being provided
            • Demonstrate working knowledge of the protocol by which orders will be processed in the environment in which they are placing the orders
            • Compose orders efficiently and effectively, such as by identifying the correct admission order set, selecting the correct fluid and electrolyte replacement orders, and recognizing the needs for deviations from standard order sets
          • Document a clinical encounter in the patient record
            • Filter, organize, and prioritize information
            • Synthesize information into a cogent narrative
            • Record a problem list, working and differential diagnosis and plan
            • Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting)
          • Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter
            • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty
            • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation
          • Give or receive a patient handover to transition care responsibly
            • Conduct handover communication that minimizes known threats to transitions of care (e.g., by ensuring you engage the listener, avoiding distractions)
            • Document—and update—an electronic handover tool
            • Provide succinct verbal communication that conveys, at a minimum, illness severity, situation awareness, action planning, and contingency planning
          • Recognize a patient requiring urgent or emergent care and initiate evaluation and management
            • Recognize normal vital signs and variations that might be expected based on patient- and disease-specific factors
            • Recognize severity of a patient’s illness and indications for escalating care
            • Identify potential underlying etiologies of the patient’s decompensation
            • Communicate the situation to responding team members
          • Obtain informed consent for tests and/or procedures
            • Describes the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives and potential complications of basic procedures
          • Perform basic procedures such as assisting in surgery, suturing wounds, debridements, wound VAC changes, intubation, central venous and arterial line placement, chest tube placement, foley catheterization, C spine stabilization
            • Demonstrate the technical (motor) skills required for the procedure
            • Understand and explain the anatomy, physiology, indications, risks, contraindications, benefits, alternatives, and potential complications of the procedure

          Advanced Clerkship Goals:

          1. Recognize the severity of illness in patients with a variety critical illness.
          2. Provide an extensive and complete assessment of the patient, including a complete history and physical examination, evaluation of laboratory data and radiographic material, synthesis of patient information, and generation of a comprehensive care plan.
          3. Develop a rational evaluation and management plan for the stabilization and treatment of organ system dysfunction while evaluating and treating underlying etiologies.
          4. Demonstrate competent use of technologic procedures and devices in the intensive care setting for the purposes of evaluating, monitoring, and managing patients.
          5. Integrate imaging and other diagnostic studies in assessing the critically ill.
          6. Effectively engage consultants and other ancillary care services in a team approach to manage critically ill patients.
          7. Perform procedures necessary for the assessment and treatment of critically ill patients.
          8. When indicated, address end of life decision making and advanced directives, and provide counseling for patients and their families.
          9. Provide appropriate documentation of all patient interactions.
          TRAN 6700 Transition to Master of Science in Biomedical Sciences
          Credits:
          2
          Directors:
          Milnes
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          This is a two-week course that prepares students to understand, participate, and connect in the MS degree in Biomedical Sciences program. Students build the foundation for their success in academics and professional relationships. During this course, students have opportunities to connect with the medical school’s services and support offices, and are introduced to student life organizations, student support services, information management, learning strategies, time management, financial aid, library skills, personal development, emotional intelligence, wellness, reflective writing, and the biomedical sciences curriculum.

          Objectives:
          • Describe the process to seek individual assistance in the area of:
            • Academic Skills
            • Personal counseling
            • Student affairs processes
          • Describe purpose of Learning Community system.
          • Identify their Learning Community Scholar--Advisor as a resource.
          • Use CLEARvue to access and follow schedules.
          • Access and use iBooks.
          • Subscribe to the responsibilities of a student.
          • Describe financial aid issues arising in their personal transition to WMed.
          • Apply principles of financial planning in their life.
          • Interact with peers and scholar-advisor to recognize concerns in transition to masters program
          • Recognize the role of Emotional Intelligence and its role in professionalism.
          • Identify personality preferences attained through Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
          • Summarize structure of the biomedical science curriculum.
          • Acquire general study strategies.
          • Establish time management skills.
          • Differentiate between fixed and growth mindset philosophy.
          • Participate in team building activities.
          • Participate in a series of activities designed to further acquaint them with staff/peers.
          • Allow students to explore the surrounding area, while maximizing the opportunity for integration amongst their peers and community alike.
          • Promote the importance of wellness for success in the masters program.
          • Write a reflective description after a meaningful experience.
          TRAN 6900 Transition to Medical School
          Credits:
          3
          Directors:
          Ziemkowski
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Transition to Medical School course prepares students to understand, participate, and excel in the medical school curriculum. It is divided into three separate weeks. These three weeks are structured as student success weeks, providing students with the structure and opportunities to connect with medical school services and support offices. Throughout these weeks, students explore topics related to their success, building their academic and relationship skills as part of the curriculum domain of Personal and Professional Management. Topics include student organizations, time management, stress management, study skills, learning skills, test-taking skills, information management and library skills, financial aid and planning, personal assessment, and emotional intelligence. Students additionally take a Medical First Responder course, which provides a brief, broad-based introduction to medical emergencies and the health care system. At the conclusion of this course, students become licensed Medical First Responders.

          Objectives:

          Week #1
          1. Prepare all WMed students to begin Academic coursework.
          2. Students completing Week #1 of Transitions to Medical School will be able to:

          • Describe the process to seek individual assistance in the area of:
            • Academic skills
            • Personal counseling
            • Student affairs processes
          • Describe purpose of Learning Community system.
          • Identify their Learning Community Scholar-­‐Advisor as a resource.
          • Use CLEARvue to access and follow schedules.
          • Access and use iBooks.
          • Understand the process of Team Based Learning.
          • Describe Financial Aid issues arising in their personal transition to WMed.
          • Apply principles of Financial Planning in their life.

          Week #2:
          1. Prepare all WMed students to begin Clinical Experiences.
          2. Students completing Week #2 of Transitions to Medical School will be able to:

          • Take and pass the Medical First Responder examination.
          • Understand the role of physicians in society.
          • Take the WMed 2019 Medical Student Oath.
          • Accept their white coat as a symbol of their commitment to this oath.
          • Participate in team building activities.

          Week #3:
          1. Prepare students with the skills to excel in all areas of medical school.
          2. Students completing Week #3 of Transitions to Medical School will be able to:

          • Describe resources to support impaired colleagues.   
          • Demonstrate stress relieving activities.
          • Explain the role of Racial Equity, Diversity and Inclusion in medical practice.
          • Use the NBME Test Utility to complete a sample exam.
          • Recognize the role of Emotional Intelligence and its role in Leadership.
          • Participate in a Day of Community Service.
          TRAN 6900 Transition to Medical School
          Credits:
          1
          Directors:
          Ziemkowski
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Transition to Medical School course prepares students to understand, participate, and excel in the medical school curriculum. It is divided into three separate weeks. These three weeks are structured as student success weeks, providing students with the structure and opportunities to connect with medical school services and support offices. Throughout these weeks, students explore topics related to their success, building their academic and relationship skills as part of the curriculum domain of Personal and Professional Management. Topics include student organizations, time management, stress management, study skills, learning skills, test-taking skills, information management and library skills, financial aid and planning, personal assessment, and emotional intelligence. Students additionally take a Medical First Responder course, which provides a brief, broad-based introduction to medical emergencies and the health care system. At the conclusion of this course, students become licensed Medical First Responders.

          Objectives:

          Week #1
          1. Prepare all WMed students to begin Academic coursework.
          2. Students completing Week #1 of Transitions to Medical School will be able to:

          • Describe the process to seek individual assistance in the area of:
            • Academic skills
            • Personal counseling
            • Student affairs processes
          • Describe purpose of Learning Community system.
          • Identify their Learning Community Scholar-­‐Advisor as a resource.
          • Use CLEARvue to access and follow schedules.
          • Access and use iBooks.
          • Understand the process of Team Based Learning.
          • Describe Financial Aid issues arising in their personal transition to WMed.
          • Apply principles of Financial Planning in their life.

          Week #2:
          1. Prepare all WMed students to begin Clinical Experiences.
          2. Students completing Week #2 of Transitions to Medical School will be able to:

          • Take and pass the Medical First Responder examination.
          • Understand the role of physicians in society.
          • Take the WMed 2019 Medical Student Oath.
          • Accept their white coat as a symbol of their commitment to this oath.
          • Participate in team building activities.

          Week #3:
          1. Prepare students with the skills to excel in all areas of medical school.
          2. Students completing Week #3 of Transitions to Medical School will be able to:

          • Describe resources to support impaired colleagues.   
          • Demonstrate stress relieving activities.
          • Explain the role of Racial Equity, Diversity and Inclusion in medical practice.
          • Use the NBME Test Utility to complete a sample exam.
          • Recognize the role of Emotional Intelligence and its role in Leadership.
          • Participate in a Day of Community Service.
          TRAN 6900 Transition to Medical School
          Credits:
          2
          Directors:
          Ziemkowski
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          2017-2018 description coming soon

          Objectives:

          2017-2018 course objectives coming soon

          TRAN 7900 Transition to Clinical Applications
          Credits:
          3
          Directors:
          Morris, K.Gibson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Transition to Clinical Applications provides the bridge between foundations of medicine and the clinical application of medical knowledge. The course begins with a comprehensive summative examination over years 1-2. Focus quickly shifts to preparing students to thrive in the clinical setting. Students participate in BLS recertification and procedural skills assessment. Students participate in simulation, group-based workshops and discussions to prepare for the Clinical Applications phase of the curriculum.

          Note: Throughout this course, students should plan to enter the building at 7:30am. Prebrief begins promptly at 7:45am. At this time, expectations and scheduling for the day are reviewed. Questions about the day's events are answered.

          Objectives:

          At the end of the Transitions to Clinical Application course, the year 2 medical student will:

          • Describe the professional traits associated with the roles, responsibilities and expectation of a clinician.
          • Perform the clinical procedures and skills appropriate for a third year medical student.
          • Use interpersonal communication skills in clinical interactions to promote quality patient care and education.
          • Manage their personal health and wellbeing as they fulfill clinical duties.
          • Apply knowledge of biomedical, epidemiological, and socio-behavioral sciences to clinical care.
          • Demonstrate collaborative and cooperative team member behavior as they contribute to providing quality patient care.
          • Provide patient care that acknowledges awareness of health care resources available.
          • Use available technology to improve patient care and learning.
          TRAN 7900 Transition to Clinical Applications
          Credits:
          3
          Directors:
          Morris, K. Gibson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Transition to Clinical Applications provides the bridge between foundations of medicine and the clinical application of medical knowledge. The course begins with a comprehensive summative examination over years 1-2. Focus quickly shifts to preparing students to thrive in the clinical setting. Students participate in BLS recertification and ACLS training. They are also reviewed and assessed on procedural skills utilized from day one of their clinical experience. Students are introduced to a method for studying for USMLE Step 1 during their third year, and participate in simulation, as well as group-based workshops and discussions in preparation for the Clinical Applications phase of the curriculum.

          Objectives:

          · Describe the professional traits associated with the roles, responsibilities and expectation of a clinician.

          · Perform the clinical procedures and skills appropriate for a third year medical student.

          · Use interpersonal communication skills in clinical interactions that promote quality patient care and education.

          · Manage their personal health and wellbeing as they fulfill clinical duties. 

          · Apply knowledge of biomedical, epidemiological, and socio-behavioral sciences to clinical care.

          · Demonstrate collaborative and cooperative team member behavior as they contribute to providing quality patient care.

          · Provide patient care that acknowledges awareness of health care resources available.

          · Use available technology to improve patient care and learning.

          TRAN 9100 USMLE Preparation and Examination
          Credits:
          1
          Directors:
          Morris
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          USMLE Preparation and Examination includes comprehensive preparation for USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, and USMLE Step 2 CS. Students participate in informal group activities, as well as customized reviews based on each student’s needs.  Students attend weekly interactive video conferences covering basic science topics. Students schedule, on their own, to take the USMLE Step 1 exam upon completion of this course.

          Objectives:

          Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

          1. Student will identify learning needs to prepare for USMLE Step 1, Step 2 CK, and Step 2 CS.
          2. Student will work with faculty to identify a learning plan to address learning gaps.
          TRAN 9100 Clinical Skills
          Credits:
          1
          Directors:
          Gibson
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          USMLE Preparation and Examination includes comprehensive preparation for USMLE Step 2 CK and USMLE Step 2 CS examinations. Students participate in group activities as well as customized reviews based on each student’s needs. The review includes a formative examination that mirrors the USMLE Step 2 CS examination. Students schedule, on their own, to take the USMLE Step 2 and CK exam upon completion of this course.

          Objectives:

          Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

          • Demonstrate communication skills and physical examination skills.
          • Demonstrate competency for communication skills and examination skills sufficient to pass USMLE Step 2 CS.
          • Demonstrate documentation skills in electronic medical records that meet standards of USMLE Step 2 CS.
          TRAN 9900 Transition to Residency
          Credits:
          2
          Directors:
          Baker
          Grading:
          Pass/Fail
          Description:

          Transition to Residency Course provides a summation of the Clinical Applications phase of the curriculum, and is designed to ensure the preparation of graduating students for residency. The course is designed to help the medical student understand their new role as a resident in the specialty of their choice.   The course will include topics on professionalism, communication, risk management, life skills and using informational resources for evidenced-based clinical decisions, the students will also follow their specialty track with procedure training and clinical topics designed to introduce the student for their future patient population that they will be caring for in residency.   It includes classroom didactics, small group case discussions, interactive role play, and simulation for procedural skills. 

          Objectives:

          Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

          Professionalism

          • Managing Medical Error and Disclosure and Documentation
          • Professional Liability
          • Incident reports
          • Debriefing after difficult encounters
          • Interacting with impaired peers and attending physicians
          • Handling the inappropriate patient or family member
          • Social Media

          Life Skills

          • Managing finances and debt
          • Time management and prioritizing of tasks
          • Coping with the stresses of residency -Self-care skills and life balance

          Practice-based learning and improvement

          • Utilization of informational resources for evidenced-based clinical decisions

          Systems-based Practice

          • Transitions of care with safe sign out and hand-offs
          • Proper use of EMR and creating daily notes

          Communication

          •  Transitions of care and sign out
          •  Managing conflict with peers, nursing staff, patients and families
          •  Informed consent

          Managing family meeting and discussing code status

          • Phone etiquette with the Emergency room, consultant and nursing staff

          Medical Knowledge

          •       Management of patient calls at night and review of “don’t miss” diagnoses
          •       Management of medical emergencies

          Patient Care

          •       Review of BLS and ACLS protocols, PALS if appropriate
          •       Procedure simulations for emergency and critical care in addition to specialty
          •       specific procedural skills
          •       Review indications and contraindications of commonly performed procedures
          •       Setting the agenda in the outpatient encounter
          •       Interpretation of common laboratory and radiology results
          •       Writing Admission Orders

          Teaching

          •       Transitioning into the role of teacher for medical students

          EPA 2:  Prioritize a differential diagnosis following a clinical encounter

          • Integrate information as it emerges to continuously update differential diagnosis.
          • Explain and document the clinical reasoning that led to the working diagnosis in a manner that is transparent to all members of the health care team.
          • Manage ambiguity in a differential diagnosis for self and patient and respond openly to questions and challenges from patients and other members of the health care team.
          • Didactics include:  Role play session with opportunities to obtain history and critique history taking in a small group format.  Difficult patient cases and role play on discussing sensitive information with the patient.

          EPA 3:  Recommend and interpret common diagnostic and screening tests

          • Recommend reliable and effective screening and diagnostic tests and apply to patient-specific guidelines
          • Explain how results of laboratory and diagnostic tests will influence diagnosis and management of the patient
          • Discern urgent from non-urgent results and how to respond correctly.
          • Education through role-play and small group sessions will each student participating in a case with presenting symptoms, history and physical exam results.  Through group discussion and role play the student will recommend the common diagnostic tests and explain how the results will aid in the determining the diagnosis. Interactive discussion on the top 10 calls from the floors and how to respond to them.

          EPA 4:  Enter and discuss orders and prescriptions

          • Demonstrate working knowledge of the protocol by which orders will be processed in the environment in which they are placing the orders.
          • Compose orders efficiently and effectively, such as by identifying the correct admission order set, selecting the correct fluid and electrolyte replacement orders, and recognizing the needs for deviations from standard order sets.
          • Attend to patient-specific factors such as age, weight, allergies, pharmacogenetics, and co-morbid conditions when writing or entering prescriptions or orders.
          • Demonstrate working knowledge of admission orders
          • Didactics on composing admission orders and specialty specific breakout to review protocols common to their specialty.  Composition of common orders including IV fluids and electrolyte replacements in small group discussion.

           EPA 5:  Document a clinical encounter in the patient record

          • Choose the information that requires emphasis in the documentation based on its purpose (e.g., Emergency Department visit, clinic visit, admission History and Physical Examination).  *Comply with requirements and regulations regarding documentation in the medical record.  *Verify the authenticity and origin of the information recorded in the documentation (e.g., avoids blind copying and pasting).
          • Record documentation so that it is timely and complete
          • Accurately document the reasoning supporting the decision making in the clinical encounter for any reader (e.g., consultants, other health care professionals, patients and families, auditors).
          • Document patient preferences to allow their incorporation into clinical decision making.
          • Educational sessions on proper use of EMR and documentation of encounters.  Specialty specific documentation breakout sessions for clinical encounters and procedures, if applicable.

          EPA 6:  Provide an oral presentation of a clinical encounter

          • Present information that has been personally gathered or verified, acknowledging any areas of uncertainty.
          • Provide an accurate, concise, and well-organized oral presentation.
          • Adjust the oral presentation to meet the needs of the receiver of the information.
          • Assure closed-loop communication between the presenter and receiver of the information to ensure that both parties have a shared understanding of the patient’s condition and needs.
          • In small group sessions, students will demonstrate how to give an oral summary of a case given to them.   Demonstration of consolidation of a clinical case into an oral presentation of the pertinent points.

          EPA 8:  Give or receive a patient handover to transition of care responsibility

          • Conduct handover communication that minimizes known threats to transitions of care (e.g., by ensuring you engage the listener, avoiding distractions).
          • Document—and update—an electronic handover tool.
          • Follow a structured handover template for verbal communication.
          • *Provide succinct verbal communication that conveys, at a minimum, illness severity, situation awareness, action planning, and contingency planning.
          • Elicit feedback about the most recent handover communication when assuming primary responsibility of the patients.
          • Provide feedback to transmitter to ensure informational needs are met.
          • Ask clarifying questions.
          • Repeat back to ensure closed-loop communication.
          • Education on hand off using IPASS for transition of care and demonstration of understanding of it in small group exercises.   Phone etiquette will be practiced in role play sessions for encounters with patients’ families, nurses and consultants.

          EPA 10:  Recognize a patient requiring urgent or emergent care and initiate evaluation and management

          • Recognize normal vital signs and variations that might be expected based on patient- and disease-specific factors.
          • Recognize severity of a patient’s illness and indications for escalating care.
          • Identify potential underlying etiologies of the patient’s decompensation.
          • Apply basic and advanced life support as indicated.
          • Start initial care plan for the decompensating patient.
          • Understand how to initiate a code response and participate as a team member.
          • Communicate the situation to responding team members.
          • Document patient assessments and necessary interventions in the medical record.
          • Clarify patient’s goals of care upon recognition of deterioration (e.g., DNR, DNI, comfort care).
          • All students will participate in an ACLS-lite, BLS-lite and if specialty appropriate a PALS-lite in the simulation lab.   Demonstration of the skills needed in ACLS, BLS and PALS through evaluation of knowledge and procedure skills.  Through small group sessions the students will demonstrate the communication skills needed in a code response situation.   Through role-play small group session, the students will demonstrate how to clarify goals of care for a patient with discussion for code status with the family.   Students will be educated on when and how to document in the medical record for the emergency and rapid response calls on the floors.

          EPA 11:  Obtain informed consent for tests and procedures

          • Describe the key elements of informed consent:  indications, contraindications, risks, benefits and potential complications of the intervention
          • understand how to give consent for blood products and the risks and benefits
          • understand cultural or religious objections for blood products and the alternatives available
          • In the simulation lab, the students will review the common hospital procedures required on call and the indications, risks, and benefits and what needs to be communicated to the patient to obtain consent.   Risk management office will review the proper documentation and necessary elements in obtaining consent.

          EPA 12:  Perform general procedures of a physician

          • Demonstrate technical skills for basic procedures needed for the student and their anticipated residency. 
          • Understand the indication, contraindications, risks and benefits of the procedures needed in the residency program
          • Demonstrate effective communications and team dynamics in performing the procedures
          • Students will all participate in ACLS-lite, BLS-lite and for a small group PALS-lite during the course.  The students will participate in a procedure simulation day for review of basic procedures for floor coverage as a first-year resident.  The students will be placed into groups based on the specialties that they will be entering for procedural skills specific to the specialty.