Doctor of Medicine: Foundations of Medicine Class of 2018 Courses

BIOM 7110 Molecular Foundations of Health and Disease
Credits:
3
Directors:
Quesnelle, Olken
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Molecular Foundations of Health and Disease is a three-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of the physiologic basis for macronutrient metabolism including the types of macromolecules that are metabolized to fuel, and physiologic states that alter macronutrient requirements such as starvation, trauma, and metabolic syndrome. The metabolism of glucose, generation of energy from glucose in the form of ATP, the hormonal regulation of glucose homeostasis, and consequences of defective glucose regulation that result in diabetes serve as the central content theme throughout the course. The course provides an introduction to anatomy, genetics, biochemistry, and pharmacology. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to reinforce basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Understand how carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are utilized as fuels.
  • Describe the methods used to measure nutritional status and explain how age, trauma, and starvation alter energy and nutritional requirements.
  • Describe the metabolic and pathologic consequences of being obese.
  • Define protein structure and the role of enzymes as catalysts, describe enzyme kinetics, and differentiate between competitive and non-competitive inhibitors.
  • Describe the structure and function of cellular organelles including cell membranes, illustrate vesicular trafficking, and differentiate the different between the different classes of drug receptors.
  • List the major micronutrients, vitamins, and minerals and detect clinical signs of deficiency and toxicity associated with each.
  • Characterize how hormonal changes are regulated to affect nutrient metabolism.
  • Explain the significance of gene regulation and gene structure.
  • Discuss the mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in the body.
  • List the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, pre-diabetes, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome and understand surgical and pharmacologic treatments for these diagnoses.
  • Understand a basic anatomical vocabulary, identify the major organs, and compare and contrast imaging techniques.
BIOM 7120 Cellular Foundations of Health and Disease
Credits:
4
Directors:
Bauler, Sheakley, D. Patel
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Cellular Foundations of Health and Disease is a four-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of the role of cells within the body. Cellular biochemistry, anatomical structure, and physiological function are introduced and then expanded, emphasizing the role of cells as the basic building blocks in a hierarchal system that increases in complexity as cells form tissues, organs, organ systems, and the whole organism. Cellular hormonal and neuronal control mechanisms are described at the biochemical, histological, and physiological levels. The principle of homeostasis is defined at the level of cell, tissues, organs, and at whole body level, with signals arising from the body’s four tissue types used as examples of the importance of this process in the control of body function. The autonomic nervous system is described in detail and then employed as the starting point for teaching of the foundations of human pharmacology. Pharmacological principles outlined include pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics (personalized medicine), and toxicity. The use of drugs for the treatment of disease is introduced with an overview of how clinical laboratory methodology can be employed to provide scientific data for the diagnosis, evaluation, and monitoring of microbial disease and its pharmacological treatment. The course introduces the basic biology of medically relevant microbes, the basic principles of infectious disease, the underlying mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, the immunologic basis of disease etiology and pathology, and vaccination and immunotherapy. The course provides an introduction to pathology, and deepens the introduction to anatomy and genetics. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

 

Objectives:
  • Explain the structural organization of the body into a functional unit from the cellular level to level of the whole body differentiating the four cell types found in the body.
  • Define the concept of homeostasis at the cellular, tissue, organ and organism levels
  • Explain how the principles of negative and positive feedback, hierarchy, redundancy and, adaptability are integral to homeostatic control.
  • List the common parameters of the extracellular fluid compartment that must be homeostatically regulated ([nutrients]; [O2]/[CO2]; [waste products]; [H+] = pH; [H2O]/[Electrolytes]; volume and pressure; temperature), including normal blood chemistry values, plasma water and salt content regulation, and basis of cellular volume control.
  • Define how ions and molecules are transported across the cellular plasma membrane, epithelial organs, and capillaries, as well as the relevance of these processes to disease, including the ionic basis of cell membrane potential.
  • Define the biological and physiological nature of extracellular messengers, differentiating between hormone and neurotransmitter function.
  • Explain cellular signal transduction pathways using receptors, second messengers, kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors, including regulation of plasma glucose levels.
  • Compare and contrast the structure and function of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system including sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, cholinergic and adrenergic receptors, synaptic transmission, consequences of receptor dysfunction, and drugs that used to manage receptor dysfunction.
  • Describe the pharmacodynamics of drugs in terms of concentration, dose, and response.
  • Explain the principles of receptor pharmacology including agonist, antagonist, receptor reserve, drug selectivity, potency, and efficacy.
  • Analyze pharmacological effects in terms of ligand or drug-receptor interactions and pharmacological effects in terms of drug absorption and distribution, therapeutic index, and toxicity.
  • Use pharmacokinetic principles and data to calculate drug loading and maintenance doses, and effects of drug metabolism, excretion, and elimination effects the plasma concentration of drugs.
  • Describe the process in which new drugs are developed, tested, and approved for medical use in the United States.
  • Identify the components of personalized medicine and describe how they might impact patient health with regard to pharmacogenomics.
  • Describe the basic biology of medically relevant microbes.
  • Describe the methodology by which the clinical laboratory diagnoses, evaluates and monitors microbial disease.
  • Describe the basic mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, the epidemiology relating to the management, control, and prevention of disease.
  • Explain the pharmacologic principles of antimicrobial therapy and the general therapeutic approach to treat microbial-based diseases.
BIOM 7130 Genetic Foundations of Health and Disease
Credits:
4
Directors:
Vanden Heuvel, Ten Eyck, Leonov
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Genetics Foundations of Health and Disease is a four-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of human medical genetic concepts and clinical disorders that have a genetic component. The course also provides an overview of the basic genetics of medically important infectious agents that contribute to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to reinforce basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Describe the processes of DNA replication, transcription and translation; illustrate the role of templates in these processes; recognize diseases that are associated with defective replication, transcription or translation.
  • List the types and causes of DNA mutation, the mechanisms of DNA repair and the functional consequences of mutation.
  • Describe mechanisms of genetic/genomic variation that explain variation in normal phenotypic expression, disease phenotypes, and treatment options including genomic imprinting, uniparental disomy, and triplet expansion errors.
  • Describe Mendelian inheritance and recognize pedigree patterns such as autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked recessive, and X-linked dominant to diagnose a clinical case, and differentiate the inheritance patterns of multifactorial inheritance disorders with single-gene disorders.
  • Explain how factors such as reduced penetrance and variable expressivity affect the phenotypic expression of a disease and the observed pattern of inheritance.
  • Understand the relationship between gene interactions and the measurable traits of an individual articulating how a single genotype can influence multiple phenotypes through mechanisms such as the function of modifier genes and epistasis.
  • Define the concept of epigenetics, explain the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulation of gene expression, development and disease, and describe how environmental exposures can influence epigenetic modifications.
  • Compare and contrast the function and regulation of mitosis versus meiosis, and describe the differences between euploidy, aneuploidy, and other chromosomal abnormalities.
  • Describe the key events in early and late embryological development, the genetic processes that regulate development, and diseases that result from the disruption of these processes including types of errors in morphology that lead to congenital birth defects.
  • Define embryonic stem cells and the different developmental capacities (potencies) associated with these cell types.
  • Describe normal and abnormal mammalian sexual development and explain the factors that control sexual development.
  • Define the clinical indications for cytogenetic/molecular cytogenetic studies, and apply knowledge of cytogenetics and molecular genetics to describe the principles, uses and limitations of genetic testing technologies.
  • Describe the basic concepts of emerging molecular technologies including expression based techniques, exome and whole genome sequencing, and generation of transgenic models.
  • Describe applications of gene targeting in biomedicine and treatment strategies for genetic diseases.
  • Define pharmacogenomics comparing personalized versus non-personalized forms of medical therapy, and describe how biomarkers can be used as indicators of different disease states and could be applied to various clinical situations.
  • Describe the mitochondrial genome and contrast with the nuclear genome.
  • Describe the nucleic acid composition, structure, replication and reproduction of microbes (including prions), and describe the genetic processes that contribute to antimicrobial resistance.
  • Define the general concepts of antiviral drug therapy.
  • Explain how dietary lipids are carried in the blood and the underlying genetic basis and clinical presentation of severe elevations in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) levels.
BIOM 7140 Metabolic Foundations of Health and Disease
Credits:
3
Directors:
Garrow, Wilke
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Metabolic Foundations of Health and Disease is a three-week course that provides a fundamental understanding of medical biochemistry related to the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides with special emphasis on defects in these metabolic pathways and their clinical relevance. Special emphasis is placed on the integration of metabolic pathways and the regulation of metabolism in different organ systems under different nutritional stress. The course also provides insight into ethanol metabolism as well as the formation of reactive oxygen species and the potential tissue damage associated with oxygen radical formation. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Describe the overall design and purpose of gluconeogenesis, its reactants and products, cellular and tissue localization, and how it is regulated.
  • Describe the metabolism of fructose and galactose and identify diseases that arise from defects in their metabolism.
  • Describe the role of the pentose phosphate pathway in the production of NADPH and pentose phosphate.
  • Describe how the urea cycle maintains a proper nitrogen balance, and allows for excretion of excess ammonium in the form of urea.
  • Define the roles of folic acid and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the transfer of one-carbon units between molecules.
  • Define essential and nonessential amino acids, list which nonessential amino acids can upon certain conditions become conditional essential.
  • Identify intermediates from glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway that can serve as precursors for the synthesis of nonessential amino acids, and the anabolic reactions of non-essential amino acids.
  • Define ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids and the pathways of amino acid degradation.
  • Differentiate the following disease states associated with inborn errors of amino acid metabolism: cystinuria, histidinemia, phelyketonuria, methylmalonyl CoA mutase deficiency, homocystinuria, alcaptonuria, maple syrup urine disease, cystathioninuria, and tyrosinemia.
  • Describe the structure and synthesis of fatty acids, triacylglycerides, and membrane lipids.
  • Describe the process of fatty acid oxidation and the generation of energy from fatty acid oxidation.
  • Define the role of fatty acids and ketone bodies in fuel homeostasis.
  • Describe the de novo and salvage pathways for purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis.
  • List the gene disorders and diseases associated with purine and pyrimidine metabolism, the metabolite that accumulates, and the clinical symptoms of the disease.
  • Describe the metabolism of ethanol and the associated toxic effects of ethanol metabolism.
  • Differentiate between the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen-oxygen species (RNOS) and forms of cellular toxicity associated with free-radicle injury.
BIOM 7150 Foundations of Immunology and Infectious Disease
Credits:
5
Directors:
Bauler, Van Enk, Lutwick
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Foundations of Immunology and Infectious Disease provides a fundamental understanding of the principles of immunology and infectious disease, and the application of this knowledge to immunologic, infectious, and rheumatologic diseases. The five-week course integrates immunology through the learning of microbiology and includes relevant aspects of anatomy, histology, pharmacology, and pathology. Specifically, students: (1) learn about the soluble mediators, cells, and organs of the immune system and how these elements work together to prevent infection; (2) examine how the immune system causes and contributes to diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy, and chronic inflammatory diseases; and (3) acquire the necessary foundational knowledge of virology, mycology, parasitology, and bacteriology to understand how infectious microbes cause organ-specific and systemic diseases. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications. After completing this course, medical students are able to apply the general concepts of immunology and infectious disease to specific diseases they encounter in future organ-based courses.

Objectives:
  • Describe the normal immune response to pathogenic insult and damaged or necrotic tissues.
  • Explain the immunologic basis of vaccination, immunomodulation and immunotherapies.
  • Describe the development and senescence of the immune system.
  • Describe the mechanisms of immune regulation.
  • Describe the immunologic basis of diseases with an immune etiology or component.
  • Describe the basic biology of medically relevant microbes.
  • Describe the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis.
  • Describe the methodology by which the clinical laboratory diagnoses, evaluates and monitors disease.
  • Describe the basic principles of infectious disease.
  • Explain the pharmacologic principles of antimicrobial therapy.
  • Describe the therapeutic approach to treat the pathophysiologic effects of immunologically- and microbial-based diseases.
  • Describe the pathologic consequences of infectious and immunologically-based diseases.
  • Describe the basic principles of epidemiology as they relate to the study, management, control and prevention of disease.
BIOM 7210 Hematology and Oncology
Credits:
4
Directors:
Quesnelle, Elliott, Mirro
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Hematology and Oncology provides a fundamental understanding of hematological and tumor biology basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to clinical hematology, hematological oncology, and cancer. The four-week course focuses on the mechanistic and pathophysiological aspects of blood physiology and neoplasia using clinical examples of the various anemias, leukemias, lymphomas, and selected solid tumors. An overview of basic tumor pathology includes development and progression of benign and malignant disease, grading and staging of tumors, carcinogenesis, and metastasis. The course covers the biological mechanisms underlying cellular growth control, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, tumor immunology, and the roles of oncogenes and tumor suppressor proteins. The pharmacology of major therapeutic agents used to treat hematological disorders and antineoplastic agents is described. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications. After completing this course, medical students are able to apply the general concepts of tumor biology and cancer therapeutics to specific neoplastic diseases they encounter in future organ-based courses.

Objectives:
  • Describe the morphology of erythrocytes and explain the production and function of hemoglobin, O2 and CO2 transport, and ABO/Rh blood types.
  • Explain hemostasis and the production and function of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors and predict the consequences of abnormal function of erythrocytes, platelets and blood proteins/hemostatic factors.
  • Explain the abnormal processes associated with non-malignant blood disorders including congenital and acquired anemias and cytopenias; cythemia; hemorrhagic and hemostatic disorders; bleeding secondary to platelet disorders and complications of transfusion.
  • Explain the abnormal processes associated with malignant blood disorders including leukemia, lymphomas, and myelodysplastic disorders.
  • Explain the mechanisms of action, use, and adverse effects of drugs and other therapeutic modalities for treatment of disorders of the hematopoietic system including; blood and blood products, treatments for anemia, stimulation of RBC and leukocyte production, anticoagulants and thrombolytic agents, anti-platelet drugs, anti-neoplastic and immunosuppressive drugs, and drugs used to treat acquired disorders of immune responsiveness.
  • Define the characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms, and describe the system utilized for tumor grading.
  • Describe the process of malignant transformation in terms of progression, invasion, and metastasis.
  • Differentiate between the types of carcinogens including; chemicals, radiation, environmental factors, and oncogenic viruses.
  • Describe methods for the detection of tumors, tumor biomarkers and the diagnosis of tumors including; proteomics, genomics, micro-array analysis, and imaging techniques.
  • Describe the process under which chemotherapeutic drugs are developed and enter clinical use (drug trials).
  • Classify the common anti-tumor drugs according to their mechanism of action and clinical use.
  • Compare different growth factor pathways through the differences in utilization of receptors, second messengers, kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors.
  • Recognize the major mechanisms involved in regulating cell proliferation, including cell cycle checkpoints, growth factors, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, interaction with extracellular matrix components, and cell signaling.
  • Define and differentiate between necrosis and the intrinsic, extrinsic, and cellular mediated pathways of apoptosis, and the role of apoptosis in tumorigenesis.
  • Describe the role of angiogenesis in tumorigenesis.
  • Describe the role of immunological evasion and inflammation in tumorigenesis.
  • Define senescence and the role of telomerases.
  • Define the role of stem cells in tumor biology.
  • Describe the role of radiation in the treatment of cancer including radiation safety concerns.
BIOM 7230 Cardiovascular
Credits:
6
Directors:
Sheakley, Reinoehl
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Cardiovascular provides a fundamental understanding of cardiovascular basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to cardiovascular diseases. The six-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the cardiovascular system, including an integrated presentation of embryology, anatomy, physiology, microbiology, and immunology, and their relation to pathologies of the cardiovascular system. Woven through these topics is the practical introduction to key elements of the physical examination of the heart, and basic electrocardiogram interpretation. In addition, current evidence supporting methods of risk assessment, diagnostic testing, and pharmacologic prevention and management of cardiovascular disease are examined. Clinical scenarios such as shock and bradycardia are presented in high fidelity simulation. In addition, clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format, including valvular heart disease, atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction, congenital heart defect, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmias, The simulations and team-based learning cases provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications. 

Objectives:
  • Describe the normal gross structure, histology, and physiology of the heart and vascular beds.
  • Describe the gross structure, histology, and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system seen in common diseases and conditions.
  • Compare and contrast the physiology of the systemic and pulmonary circulations.
  • Describe the molecular, biochemical and cellular mechanisms that enable the cardiovascular system to maintain the body’s homeostasis, especially blood pressure.
  • Recognize the molecular basis of cardiac contractility and electrophysiology, and describe how abnormalities of these mechanisms produce important cardiovascular diseases.
  • Interpret simple ECG’s based on an understanding of membrane potentials and electrical wave propagation in the heart.
  • Identify the common electrocardiographic abnormalities and arrhythmias.
  • Describe the causes (genetic, developmental, microbiologic, autoimmune, metabolic, toxic, and traumatic) of cardiovascular dysfunction.
  • Recognize the importance of genetic factors in the production of certain cardiovascular diseases.
  • Describe the clinical presentations (symptoms and signs) of the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system.
  • Describe the essential pathological features of important cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, cardiomyopathy, pericardial disease, ischemic heart disease, and valvular heart disease.
  • Identify auscultatory findings associated with common valvular and congenital heart abnormalities.
  • Identify and describe heart failure based on an understanding of cardiac preload and afterload.
  • Identify and describe valvular heart disease based on an understanding of the events of cardiac cycle.
  • Identify and describe ischemic heart disease based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology.
  • Apply the principles of pharmacology, therapeutics, and therapeutic decision making to cardiovascular dysfunction.
  • Demonstrate your understanding of the use and limits of laboratory diagnostic methods in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.
  • Describe the epidemiology of common cardiovascular maladies within a defined population, and the systematic approaches useful in reducing the incidence and prevalence of those maladies.

 

BIOM 7240 Pulmonary
Credits:
6
Directors:
Morris, Wilt
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Pulmonary provides a fundamental understanding of pulmonary basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to pulmonary diseases. The six-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the pulmonary system including embryology, anatomy, physiology, microbiology, and immunology, and relating these to pathologies of the pulmonary system.  The course starts with detailed and complete explanations of the physiological mechanisms that underlie the act of breathing, followed by exploration of the developmental anatomy of the lung, the gross anatomy of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Clinical problems and pulmonary function test data is examined at the molecular level, the level of the alveolus, the chest wall, and the pulmonary circulation. The course covers pathophysiological changes in lung function and the spectrum of lung disorders commonly seen in the human population. Ventilation-perfusion inequality and gas exchange defects are presented in team based learning exercises. The neurological basis of ventilatory control is investigated, and the role of central and peripheral chemoreceptors in ventilatory drive are uncovered, including a detailed overview of the biochemistry of hydrogen buffering and the mixed physiological buffering mechanisms of the blood.  The clinical conditions of sleep apnea and related disorders, obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, neoplastic lung disease, immune mediated hemorrhage syndromes, bacterial and viral bronchitis, fungal and mycoplasma atypical pneumonia, atelectasis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pleural disease, acute lung injury and failing heart/pulmonary vascular disease are covered. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Explain the movement of air in the lungs, the transfer and rate of gas exchange across the alveolar membrane, and the homeostatic controls of lung ventilation to insure the needs of the body are met.
  • Describe the stages of lung development and the physiologic changes of lung function with aging, including the development of the airways, the alveolus, and the sinuses, the perinatal changes that allow the newborn to breath, and the effects of aging on the respiratory tract.
  • Describe the normal gross anatomy and function of the lung, diaphragm, thorax, nasopharynx and sinuses, and visceral and parietal pleurae.
  • Describe the normal histological structure of the lung including the respiratory passages, respiratory epithelium, alveoli, and pulmonary vasculature.
  • Define standard lung volumes and how they are measured; including forced expiratory flow (FEF), total lung capacity (or volume), airway resistance, compliance, and elastic recoil, and how these factors can alter distribution of ventilation throughout the lung and distinguish between obstructive and restrictive disease.
  • Describe the physical-chemical forces responsible for the movement of O2 into the blood and from the blood to the tissues of the body, describing forms in which O2 is transported, and determining the % O2 saturation of hemoglobin and partial pressure of O2 under various conditions.
  • Describe the forces responsible for the movement of CO2 from the tissues to the blood and list the forms in which CO2 is transported in the blood, diagraming the relationship between PCO2 and the concentration of CO2.
  • List factors that allow for adaptation to high altitude.
  • Describe the harmful effects of breathing N2 and O2 under high pressure, explaining how breathing high pressure gas mixtures influence PaO2, PaCO2, and PaN2.
  • Describe the blood flow, mean arterial pressures, venous pressures, and resistances to blood flow in the systemic and in the pulmonary circulations and explain the effects of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.
  • Define the physiological roles of pulmonary surfactant and alveoli interdependence, and describe the consequences of reduced lung surfactant levels.
  • Explain the traumatic mechanism by which pulmonary injury can occur, discussing treatment, clinical sequelae, and outcomes; including the pathophysiology of venous thromboembolic disease.
  • Describe the dynamic control mechanisms that regulate respiration; including neurological control, and functional properties of central and peripheral chemoreceptors and their role in hypoventilation and hyperventilation.
  • Explain the dynamic nature of plasma pH-balance, introducing the physiological concepts of plasma physiological buffering, the isohydric principle, buffering power, and anion gap.
  • Define pathophysiology, pharmacological treatment and surgical treatment of obstructive and restrictive airway disease.
  • Differentiate the pathophysiology of bronchiectatic syndromes.
  • Describe the anatomic changes in airways and lungs that accompany tobacco use.
  • Describe the physiology, pathology and histology of lung neoplasms, and describe treatment options (pharmacological/surgical).
  • Differentiate normal flora from abnormal flora in the lung, describing the cellular and humoral defenses of the lung, and the etiology of respiratory tract infections (bacterial, viral, and fungal).
  • Explain how systemic disorders (metabolic, heart, sleep related, and peripheral vascular disease) affect pulmonary function and describe pharmacological treatment options.
BIOM 7250 Renal and Genitourinary
Credits:
5
Directors:
Vanden Heuvel, Lange
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Renal and Genitourinary provides a fundamental understanding of renal and genitourinary basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to renal and genitourinary diseases. The five-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the renal and genitourinary system including anatomy, biochemistry, genetics, physiology, microbiology, immunology, pathology, pharmacology and therapeutics, and preventive medicine. The course includes the structure and function of the kidneys, the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, and the common imbalances of renal physiology that result in disease. Working in groups, students will study a number of renal disorders in a team-based learning format including diabetic nephropathy, hypokalemia, renal cancer, transport disorders, and graft vs. host disease following renal transplantation. The course covers the pathophysiology of electrolyte disorders, acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, tubulo-interstitial disease, acute renal failure, chronic kidney disease, renal replacement therapies, and urology. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Discuss the normal and abnormal embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes of the renal and genitourinary system including congenital malformations.
  • Describe normal renal/GU structure and function, including the structure and function of the glomerulus and the physical determinants of glomerular ultrafiltration.
  • Discuss the regulation of acid-base homeostasis, and interpret metabolic disturbances including electrolyte and acid/base disorders.
  • Define renal clearance, renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, and filtration fraction and list typical values, and the myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms that regulate plasma flow and filtration rate.
  • Differentiate the transport mechanisms that contribute to the reabsorption of the filtered load of solute and water in the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal nephron that regulate osmolality, water balance potassium homeostasis, ureagenesis, and nitrogen excretion.
  • Describe and interpret the neurohormonal renal axis.
  • Differentiate nephritic and nephrotic syndromes.
  • Describe immune and non-immune mechanisms of renal injury.
  • Evaluate clinical and laboratory data including chemistries, urinalysis, biomarkers, and renal function tests, as they pertain to renal and genitourinary disease.
  • Discuss the effect of systemic diseases, including diabetes, on the renal system.
  • Discuss congenital and genetic disorders affecting the renal/urinary system, including cystic diseases, Bartter syndrome, Gitelman syndrome, and Liddle syndrome.
  • Articulate the role and mechanism of action of drugs used in the treatment of disorders of the renal and genitourinary system including anti-hypertensive drugs and their primary sites of action.
  • Describe the utility of radiologic and urologic procedures available to diagnose and treat common conditions including vesicoureteral reflux, nephrolithiasis, and various causes of urinary obstruction.
  • Review the indications for and mechanisms of renal replacement therapy including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and transplantation.
  • Describe the pathophysiology of tubulointerstitial and vascular disease.
  • Describe the mechanisms of acute and chronic infectious and inflammatory renal diseases, including acute and chronic pyelonephritis.
  • Describe the mechanisms and clinical course of acute renal failure.
  • Explain the increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its impact on the health care system.
  • Describe neoplastic kidney disease.
  • Integrate basic nutritional sciences with the relevant clinical conditions of the renal and genitourinary organ systems.
BIOM 7260 Gastrointestinal
Credits:
6
Directors:
Dickinson, Miller
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Gastrointestinal provides a fundamental understanding of gastrointestinal basic science principles, and the application of this knowledge to gastrointestinal diseases. The six-week course covers normal features and pathological processes of the gastrointestinal system including physiology, pharmacology, anatomy, histology, pathology, mucosal immunology, nutrition, biochemistry, microbiology, developmental biology and neuroscience and relating these to pathologies of the gastrointestinal system.  The course provides students with a comprehensive understanding of the diseases and disorders of the gastrointestinal system and its associated accessory organs to: (1) diagnose, effectively treat and manage gastrointestinal-related illnesses, (2) address patient issues and concerns regarding a gastrointestinal complaint and (3) understand the various gastrointestinal-related disorders associated with pediatric and geriatric patients. Clinical sciences and skills include discussion of the common causes of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders, collecting a relevant history based on an abdominal complaint and the appropriate evaluation and treatment of patients with common gastrointestinal abnormalities. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Explain the neurological and endocrine control of GI function.
  • List and describe the mechanism of action of drugs to alter GI function.
  • Describe the pathogenesis of the major viral, bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases of the GI system.
  • Describe the normal embryonic development and congenital malformations of the GI tract, and the repair, regeneration and changes to the GI tract throughout life.
  • Describe the synthetic and metabolic functions of hepatocytes, and the pathophysiology of metabolic liver disease.
  • Describe the common vitamin deficiencies and toxicities, and match common manifestations with vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
  • Describe the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients, how nutritional status is assessed, and describe protein-calorie malnutrition.
  • Explain the pathophysiology and chemotherapeutic treatment of neoplastic diseases of the GI tract and describe the genetic susceptibility to neoplasms of the GI tract and accessory organs, including benign and malignant diseases.
  • Explain the pathophysiology of pancreatic disease, list the causes for pancreatitis and describe pancreatic replacement therapy and treatment of pancreatitis.
  • Explain the pathophysiology of the autoimmune diseases of the GI system, including the pathophysiology, genetics and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Describe the composition of the normal flora of the GI tract and explain the use of probiotics, prebiotics and fecal transplantation.
  • Describe infectious, inflammatory and immunologic disorders of the GI tract (including causes and treatment of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis), the GI defense mechanisms against ulceration, infection and neoplasms and explain how defects in this system contribute to disease.
  • Describe the pattern approach to abdominal radiography.
  • Explain the link between oral health and systemic disease.
  • Describe differences between fluid replacement in children and adults.
  • Describe the mechanism of action of antibiotics and vaccines to treat and prevent infectious and non-infectious causes of diarrhea.
  • Describe the causes, diagnosis and treatment of intestinal bleeding, and the pathophysiology of the vascular disorders of the intestinal tract.
  • Describe common traumatic injuries and causes and treatments for mechanical disorders of GI tract.
  • Discuss psychosocial factors caused by GI disorders.
BIOM 7270 Endocrinology and Reproduction
Credits:
6
Directors:
Keator, Draznin, Rebar
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Endocrinology and Reproduction provides a fundamental understanding of classic endocrinology, followed by the basic principles and pathologies specific to men and women, including the complexities of pregnancy. Clinical content is woven throughout the course to reinforce the basic science concepts as they relate to clinical application(s), and at the end of each week a highly integrated clinical case is presented in team-based learning format. The course is subdivided into two major sections. The first half of the course concentrates on classic endocrinology and includes the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid function, calcium-phosphate homeostasis, and the adrenal gland. The second half focuses on the gender-specific differences and/or similarities between the reproductive systems of men and women. Multiple events illustrate the ‘grey areas’ of reproductive health to highlight the ethical, societal and political challenges evident in this area of medicine. The course concludes with the topic of human sexuality, including interactive discussions about the societal and ethical responsibilities (and challenges) that the modern clinician may face when treating members of the straight and LGBT communities.

Objectives:
  • Describe the normal and abnormal embryological development of the endocrine and reproductive organ systems, including the role of environmental influences on development (e.g. Barker Hypothesis).
  • Identify gross anatomic structures, composition and function of the endocrine and reproductive organs.
  • Identify microscopic structures, composition and function of the endocrine and reproductive organs.
  • Identify gross and microscopic pathologies of the endocrine and reproductive organs.
  • Describe the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the endocrine system.
  • Describe the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the male reproductive system.
  • Describe the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the female reproductive system.
  • Describe the expected temporal-spatial changes in the mother, placenta and fetus during pregnancy, parturition and the postpartum periods.
  • List and identify maternal, placental and fetal pathologies and pathophysiologies that develop during pregnancy, occur during parturition, and develop and/or present in the postpartum.
  • Differentiate benign abnormalities from malignant carcinomas of the reproductive system, especially cancers of the breast, cervix, endometrium, ovary and prostate.
  • Identify and describe the diagnostic laboratory methods unique to assess normal and abnormal function of the endocrine and reproductive systems.
  • Identify, describe and differentiate the pharmacotherapies, including the most common agents and their mechanisms of action, that are used as first-line treatment for the most common endocrine and reproductive disorders.
  • Identify and differentiate the types of pain, and associated pain management strategies, as related to the endocrine and reproductive systems.
  • Demonstrate competence in taking an age and gender appropriate medical history, and performing a physical examination of the endocrine and reproductive systems.
  • Appreciate and describe the complexities of human sexuality, including the role(s) of the healthcare professional team for the ‘straight’ and LGBT communities.
  • Describe the educational background, responsibilities, and professional roles of the healthcare team members that support endocrine and reproductive care.
  • Correlate the theory and concepts of the endocrine and reproductive systems with real world clinical applications and settings.
BIOM 7280 Nervous System I
Credits:
5
Directors:
Riddle, Ten Eyck
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Nervous System I provides a fundamental understanding of neurological basic science principles and introduction to the application of these principles to diagnosing and treating neurological diseases. The five-week course covers normal features and processes of the nervous system, including embryology, anatomy, physiology, microbiology, and immunology, and relates these to pathologies of the nervous system. The course explores the organization, development, and physiology of the human central nervous system in relation to the essential principles of neurological function. This exploration extends from the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuronal signaling to the organization and function of sensory and motor systems and of higher order, integrative systems. The course provides an understanding of the neural and vascular anatomy of the human brain and spinal cord that is sufficient for localizing lesions within the central nervous system and that supports understanding and performing an effective neurological examination. The course equips students to interpret impairments of sensation, motor function, and cognition that accompany neurological injury and disease, as well as to develop and test mechanistic hypotheses to explain clinical signs and symptoms. The course provides an introduction to pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for neurological disorders, as well as to basic principles of neuropathology and neuroradiology. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Identify in gross- and histological specimens and in appropriate radiological images key features of: i) the basic organization of the nervous system, ii) the surface anatomy and vasculature of the brain and spinal cord, and iii) the organization of sensory and motor tracts in the brain and spinal cord.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the fundamental mechanisms of neuronal excitability, signal generation and propagation, and synaptic transmission, as well as mechanisms of signal integration and neural plasticity.
  • Identify common disorders of neuronal excitability, their clinical presentations, and their treatments.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the roles of glial cells in the central- and peripheral nervous systems; identify clinical signs and symptoms and discuss neurological tests associated with disorders of myelinating cells.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss key principles of the metabolic support of neural function, the organization of the neural microvasculature, and the structures and mechanisms that control movement of nutrients and other materials into and out of the central nervous system.
  • Describe the mechanisms, clinical presentations, and treatment of stroke and other common neurovascular disorders.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss key events and regulatory processes involved in building the nervous system during embryonic development and in early postnatal life.
  • Identify the most common disorders of neural development, their etiology, their clinical presentation, and their prognosis.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the overall organization and function of the sensory systems that determine our perception of the world and our relationship to it: somatic sensory systems and the proprioceptive, visual, auditory, vestibular, and chemical senses.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the histopathological and pathophysiological changes underlying common causes of blindness, deafness, pain, and dysfunctions of balance.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the organization and function of the brain and spinal mechanisms that govern movement of the body and its parts.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the histopathological and pathophysiological changes underlying common causes of hypokinesia, hyperkinesia, and uncoordinated movement; describe tests commonly used to evaluate movement disorders and the mechanisms of action of common pharmacological agents used to treat them.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the organization of the autonomic nervous system, identify common causes and effects of autonomic dysfunction, and explain the mechanisms of action of pharmacological agents used to treat autonomic dysfunction.
  • Identify the primary regions and mechanisms in the brain that regulate primary integrative functions, including neuroendocrine function, neuroimmune function, emotional regulation, autonomic control, and sleep/wakefulness.
  • Describe the clinical presentation and treatment of disorders of these integrative functions.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the organization of association systems of the cerebral hemispheres and the structure and function of cortical networks that control consciousness and that integrate perception, memory, and emotion in organizing behavior and planning.
  • Recognize the clinical indications of altered mental status and identify common causes of acute and chronic changes in mental status.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss aging-related changes in brain structure and neurological function and the criteria that distinguish normal from pathological aging.
  • Describe neurobiological mechanisms underlying normal- and pathological changes in cognitive- and other neural function that are associated with aging.
  • Recognize clinical presentations and describe pathophysiological changes associated with infectious and neoplastic disorders of the nervous system.
  • Identify the major classes of neuropharmacological agents, their mechanisms of action, their indications, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties, and their primary side effects and contraindications.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the structural and functional principles underlying execution and interpretation of neurological and neurocognitive examinations in the clinic.
BIOM 7282 Nervous System II
Credits:
4
Directors:
Riddle, Dunstone
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Nervous System II extends and deepens the understanding of neurological basic science principles provided in Nervous System I. The four-week course covers human development as it relates to normal and abnormal intellectual development and psychological well-being, and explores the biopsychosocial model, including the ability to describe and discuss the mechanisms, clinical presentation, and treatment of common psychiatric disorders (e.g., anxiety, mood disorders, substance abuse, psychoses, compulsive disorders, and personality disorders). In conjunction with the Profession of Medicine course, students develop familiarity with the foundations of effective mental status- and psychiatric examinations, as well as psychological and neuropsychological evaluations. The course covers the indications and pharmacological profiles of medications that are commonly used to treat psychiatric disorders, introduces nonpharmacological treatments for psychiatric disorders, and introduces students to the roles and importance of multi-disciplinary teams in neurological and psychiatric rehabilitation. Clinical cases are presented in a team-based learning format to provide reinforcement of basic science concepts as they relate to clinical applications.

Objectives:
  • Describe and discuss the biopsychosocial model, its application to the study and practice of psychiatry, and its specific benefits and limitations.
  • Describe, discuss and demonstrate understanding of the bases and elements of effective psychological- and neuropsychological evaluations and of the psychiatric examination.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of mood disorders and relate each to current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of anxiety disorders and relate each to current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of substance use disorders and addiction in the context of current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms, including reward pathways and hypothesized roles of neurochemical and structural plasticity.
  • Describe and discuss normal psychological development through childhood, adolescence and adulthood and how that development affects learning and the clinical assessment of intellectual ability.
  • Describe and discuss the clinical presentations, etiology, treatment, and current mechanistic models of autism spectrum disorders and intellectual developmental disorders.
  • Describe, diagram, and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of attention deficit disorders and learning disabilities in the context of current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
  • Describe, diagram and discuss current theoretical and experimental models of learning and memory and of executive function.
  • Describe and discuss models of consciousness as they apply to medical practice in psychiatry and neurology.
  • Compare and contrast delirium, psychoses, and other altered states of consciousness with respect to clinical presentation, etiology, neurobiological mechanisms, and treatment.
  • Describe and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of somatoform disorders in the context of current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
  • Describe and discuss the common clinical presentations, etiology and treatment of personality disorders in the context of current models of their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
  • Identify the major classes of psychopharmacological drugs, their mechanisms of action, their indications, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties, and their primary side effects and contraindications.
  • Describe and discuss the roles of non-pharmacological therapies in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and the roles of multi-disciplinary teams in neurological and psychiatric rehabilitation.
  • Compare and contrast the clinical disciplines and practice of neurology, psychiatry, behavioral neurology, and neuropsychiatry.
CLIN 7420 Introductory Clinical Experiences 3
Credits:
1
Directors:
Satonik
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Introductory Clinical Experiences 1-4 Description:

The Introductory Clinical Experience (ICE) Course exposes MS1 and MS2 students to a wide array of clinical activities.  Beginning early in Year 1 and continuing through the end of Year 2, students spend 3-4 hours during each ICE week participating in a clinically related activity.  ICE is organized into four-week blocks; four in Year 1 and six in Year 2.  Within each four-week ICE block, students will rotate among four core components: Longitudinal Clinical Experience, Primary Care, Clinical Rotations, and Inter Professional Experience (see Table below).  ICE is intended to provide early clinical exposure and, whenever possible, to provide real world clinical correlations to topics being covered in the Foundations of Medicine courses.

Longitudinal Clinical Experience Description (LCE):

The Longitudinal Clinical Experiences (LCE) component of ICE provides students with exposure to a model geriatric care program and affords students to work with the same geriatric patients over an extended period of time during their first two years.  LCE is offered at CentraCare, a PACE (Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly) organization. The mission of CentraCare is to provide comprehensive care for frail older adults. The care provided at CentraCare is centered on the belief that interdisciplinary care is the best type of care for this patient population, and that frail older adults are best served in their own home in the community as they age.

Students will participate in LCE during one of every 4 ICE weeks at the CentraCare location in either Kalamazoo or Battle Creek. In each session, students will observe the interdisciplinary approach to care for this patient population and interact with the interdisciplinary team members as they care for CentraCare patients. The ICE LCE at CentraCare will enable students to gain insight into the disciplines crucial to providing comprehensive care for frail older adults and to maintaining them safely in the community. In addition, the LCE is structured in a longitudinal format with continuity of relationships with the interdisciplinary team members and with specific participants with whom students will be paired. During the systems-based Foundations of Medicine Courses, each LCE session will include an educational activity that will address geriatric considers related to the system being studied.

Primary Care Experience Description (PC):

The Primary Care component of ICE occurs once during each four-week ICE block. Two half-day sessions in Family Medicine and two in Pediatrics are offered in Year 1 and six sessions in Internal Medicine are offered in Year 2. During Primary Care students will become increasingly comfortable seeing patients by themselves.  Resident and attending physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  To the extent possible, students will work with the same clinical preceptors.  Students are expected to encounter a variety of primary care patients.  Clinical preceptors will be made aware of the Foundations of Medicine course topics being covered during each four-week ICE block.  Whenever practical, preceptors will attempt to correlate these topics with actual patient encounters

Community Care Experience Description:

During Year 1, students will participate in a 3-4-hour Community Care Clinical Rotation.  During Year 1 students will spend one 4-hour session with home healthcare nurses.  This experience provides students with insight into the important role homecare nurses play in the healthcare system. Optionally, a student may schedule either a fire department medical first responder unit visit, a session with a paramedic ambulance, or both.  These sessions are intended to allow students to perform basic emergency medical assessment and treatment skills that they acquired during the medical first responder course. All of these experiences afford students the unique opportunity to gain insight into diverse home environments that are representative of those of their future patients. 

Emergency Care Experience Description:

The Acute Care Clinical Rotations take place in hospital emergency departments during five ICE blocks throughout Year 2.  While students will not be conducting the initial assessment, they will be able to assess patients who present with various acute clinical conditions.  It is anticipated that during each 4-hour session there will likely be at least one patient with a clinical condition that correlates to the student’s current Foundation of Medicine topic.  Resident and attending emergency physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  In addition to assessing patients, students will also have opportunities to perform or assist in a variety of common emergency procedures.

Objectives:
  • Describe different interventions used at PACE to improve quality of life of older people.
  • Explain the three tenets of the framework for comprehensive and patient-centered geriatric health care.
  • Discuss the concept of the all-inclusive care, business model of the PACE program.
  • Describe effective delivery of geriatric health care in an interdisciplinary team setting.
  • Demonstrate empathy when interacting with an older adult.
  • Demonstrate effective communication when interacting with an older adult.
  • Describe how an older adult’s healthcare needs impact the approach to his/her care in the PACE program.
  • Demonstrate the ability to review, with a geriatric patient, their medication list to identify potential medication interactions and/or special considerations for geriatric patients.

Primary Care Objectives: Upon completion of PC, each student will be able to:

  1. Discuss the titles, roles and scope of work for the common positions present in a primary care practice (receptionists, schedulers, billers, nurses, medical assistants, attending physicians, resident physicians).
  2. Describe concepts of primary care pediatric and adult preventive health care.
  3. Identify barriers and enablers to effective patient-physician communication.
  4. Describe the concept of the “patient-centered medical home”.
  5. Demonstrate the ability to perform an encounter-focused H&P for patients at the internal medicine practice

Community Care Objectives:

  • Describe professional attributes of homecare nurses and EMS personnel.
  • Describe various types of home environments and discuss how the environment may impact a person’s health.
  • Describe the roles homecare and EMS play within the broader healthcare system.
  • Demonstrate the ability to accurately measure vital signs.
  • Describe basic components of a home safety assessment (homecare only).
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform any skill considered to be within the scope of practice of a medical first responder (EMS rotations only).
  • List at least 15 medications carried on a paramedic unit and their basic emergency indications (EMS rotations only).

Emergency Care Objectives:

  • Assist emergency physicians or other clinicians in the care of emergency patients.
  • Describe the initial presenting signs and symptoms of encountered/common emergency department complaints.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform a history and physical examination on an emergency department patient with an acute (or acute on chronic) condition.
  • Demonstrate the ability to discuss/interpret basic laboratory, radiographic, and EKG studies (previously covered in Foundations of Medicine course material).
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform skills learned during the Clinical Skills and Medical First Responder Courses.
  • Describe the characteristics of a team-approach to managing a seriously ill or injured emergency patient.
  • Describe how past medical records contribute to the care of the emergency patient.
  • Discuss clinical factors used to determine the need for hospitalization of an emergency patient.
  • Describe the importance of post-discharge primary or specialty care follow-up of emergency patients.
CLIN 7410 Introductory Clinical Experiences 1
Credits:
1
Directors:
Satonik
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Introductory Clinical Experiences 1-4 Description:

The Introductory Clinical Experience (ICE) Course exposes MS1 and MS2 students to a wide array of clinical activities.  Beginning early in Year 1 and continuing through the end of Year 2, students spend 3-4 hours during each ICE week participating in a clinically related activity.  ICE is organized into four-week blocks; four in Year 1 and six in Year 2.  Within each four-week ICE block, students will rotate among four core components: Longitudinal Clinical Experience, Primary Care, Clinical Rotations, and Inter Professional Experience (see Table below).  ICE is intended to provide early clinical exposure and, whenever possible, to provide real world clinical correlations to topics being covered in the Foundations of Medicine courses.

Longitudinal Clinical Experience Description (LCE):

The Longitudinal Clinical Experiences (LCE) component of ICE provides students with exposure to a model geriatric care program and affords students to work with the same geriatric patients over an extended period of time during their first two years.  LCE is offered at CentraCare, a PACE (Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly) organization. The mission of CentraCare is to provide comprehensive care for frail older adults. The care provided at CentraCare is centered on the belief that interdisciplinary care is the best type of care for this patient population, and that frail older adults are best served in their own home in the community as they age.

Students will participate in LCE during one of every 4 ICE weeks at the CentraCare location in either Kalamazoo or Battle Creek. In each session, students will observe the interdisciplinary approach to care for this patient population and interact with the interdisciplinary team members as they care for CentraCare patients. The ICE LCE at CentraCare will enable students to gain insight into the disciplines crucial to providing comprehensive care for frail older adults and to maintaining them safely in the community. In addition, the LCE is structured in a longitudinal format with continuity of relationships with the interdisciplinary team members and with specific participants with whom students will be paired. During the systems-based Foundations of Medicine Courses, each LCE session will include an educational activity that will address geriatric considers related to the system being studied.

Primary Care Experience Description (PC):

The Primary Care component of ICE occurs once during each four-week ICE block. Two half-day sessions in Family Medicine and two in Pediatrics are offered in Year 1 and six sessions in Internal Medicine are offered in Year 2. During Primary Care students will become increasingly comfortable seeing patients by themselves.  Resident and attending physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  To the extent possible, students will work with the same clinical preceptors.  Students are expected to encounter a variety of primary care patients.  Clinical preceptors will be made aware of the Foundations of Medicine course topics being covered during each four-week ICE block.  Whenever practical, preceptors will attempt to correlate these topics with actual patient encounters

Community Care Experience Description:

During Year 1, students will participate in a 3-4-hour Community Care Clinical Rotation.  During Year 1 students will spend one 4-hour session with home healthcare nurses.  This experience provides students with insight into the important role homecare nurses play in the healthcare system. Optionally, a student may schedule either a fire department medical first responder unit visit, a session with a paramedic ambulance, or both.  These sessions are intended to allow students to perform basic emergency medical assessment and treatment skills that they acquired during the medical first responder course. All of these experiences afford students the unique opportunity to gain insight into diverse home environments that are representative of those of their future patients. 

Emergency Care Experience Description:

The Acute Care Clinical Rotations take place in hospital emergency departments during five ICE blocks throughout Year 2.  While students will not be conducting the initial assessment, they will be able to assess patients who present with various acute clinical conditions.  It is anticipated that during each 4-hour session there will likely be at least one patient with a clinical condition that correlates to the student’s current Foundation of Medicine topic.  Resident and attending emergency physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  In addition to assessing patients, students will also have opportunities to perform or assist in a variety of common emergency procedures.

Objectives:
  • Describe different interventions used at PACE to improve quality of life of older people.
  • Explain the three tenets of the framework for comprehensive and patient-centered geriatric health care.
  • Discuss the concept of the all-inclusive care, business model of the PACE program.
  • Describe effective delivery of geriatric health care in an interdisciplinary team setting.
  • Demonstrate empathy when interacting with an older adult.
  • Demonstrate effective communication when interacting with an older adult.
  • Describe how an older adult’s healthcare needs impact the approach to his/her care in the PACE program.
  • Demonstrate the ability to review, with a geriatric patient, their medication list to identify potential medication interactions and/or special considerations for geriatric patients.

Primary Care Objectives: Upon completion of PC, each student will be able to:

  1. Discuss the titles, roles and scope of work for the common positions present in a primary care practice (receptionists, schedulers, billers, nurses, medical assistants, attending physicians, resident physicians).
  2. Describe concepts of primary care pediatric and adult preventive health care.
  3. Identify barriers and enablers to effective patient-physician communication.
  4. Describe the concept of the “patient-centered medical home”.
  5. Demonstrate the ability to perform an encounter-focused H&P for patients at the internal medicine practice

Community Care Objectives:

  • Describe professional attributes of homecare nurses and EMS personnel.
  • Describe various types of home environments and discuss how the environment may impact a person’s health.
  • Describe the roles homecare and EMS play within the broader healthcare system.
  • Demonstrate the ability to accurately measure vital signs.
  • Describe basic components of a home safety assessment (homecare only).
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform any skill considered to be within the scope of practice of a medical first responder (EMS rotations only).
  • List at least 15 medications carried on a paramedic unit and their basic emergency indications (EMS rotations only).

Emergency Care Objectives:

  • Assist emergency physicians or other clinicians in the care of emergency patients.
  • Describe the initial presenting signs and symptoms of encountered/common emergency department complaints.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform a history and physical examination on an emergency department patient with an acute (or acute on chronic) condition.
  • Demonstrate the ability to discuss/interpret basic laboratory, radiographic, and EKG studies (previously covered in Foundations of Medicine course material).
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform skills learned during the Clinical Skills and Medical First Responder Courses.
  • Describe the characteristics of a team-approach to managing a seriously ill or injured emergency patient.
  • Describe how past medical records contribute to the care of the emergency patient.
  • Discuss clinical factors used to determine the need for hospitalization of an emergency patient.
  • Describe the importance of post-discharge primary or specialty care follow-up of emergency patients.
CLIN 7412 Introductory Clinical Experiences 2
Credits:
1
Directors:
Satonik
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Introductory Clinical Experiences 1-4 Description:

The Introductory Clinical Experience (ICE) Course exposes MS1 and MS2 students to a wide array of clinical activities.  Beginning early in Year 1 and continuing through the end of Year 2, students spend 3-4 hours during each ICE week participating in a clinically related activity.  ICE is organized into four-week blocks; four in Year 1 and six in Year 2.  Within each four-week ICE block, students will rotate among four core components: Longitudinal Clinical Experience, Primary Care, Clinical Rotations, and Inter Professional Experience (see Table below).  ICE is intended to provide early clinical exposure and, whenever possible, to provide real world clinical correlations to topics being covered in the Foundations of Medicine courses.

Longitudinal Clinical Experience Description (LCE):

The Longitudinal Clinical Experiences (LCE) component of ICE provides students with exposure to a model geriatric care program and affords students to work with the same geriatric patients over an extended period of time during their first two years.  LCE is offered at CentraCare, a PACE (Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly) organization. The mission of CentraCare is to provide comprehensive care for frail older adults. The care provided at CentraCare is centered on the belief that interdisciplinary care is the best type of care for this patient population, and that frail older adults are best served in their own home in the community as they age.

Students will participate in LCE during one of every 4 ICE weeks at the CentraCare location in either Kalamazoo or Battle Creek. In each session, students will observe the interdisciplinary approach to care for this patient population and interact with the interdisciplinary team members as they care for CentraCare patients. The ICE LCE at CentraCare will enable students to gain insight into the disciplines crucial to providing comprehensive care for frail older adults and to maintaining them safely in the community. In addition, the LCE is structured in a longitudinal format with continuity of relationships with the interdisciplinary team members and with specific participants with whom students will be paired. During the systems-based Foundations of Medicine Courses, each LCE session will include an educational activity that will address geriatric considers related to the system being studied.

Primary Care Experience Description (PC):

The Primary Care component of ICE occurs once during each four-week ICE block. Two half-day sessions in Family Medicine and two in Pediatrics are offered in Year 1 and six sessions in Internal Medicine are offered in Year 2. During Primary Care students will become increasingly comfortable seeing patients by themselves.  Resident and attending physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  To the extent possible, students will work with the same clinical preceptors.  Students are expected to encounter a variety of primary care patients.  Clinical preceptors will be made aware of the Foundations of Medicine course topics being covered during each four-week ICE block.  Whenever practical, preceptors will attempt to correlate these topics with actual patient encounters

Community Care Experience Description:

During Year 1, students will participate in a 3-4-hour Community Care Clinical Rotation.  During Year 1 students will spend one 4-hour session with home healthcare nurses.  This experience provides students with insight into the important role homecare nurses play in the healthcare system. Optionally, a student may schedule either a fire department medical first responder unit visit, a session with a paramedic ambulance, or both.  These sessions are intended to allow students to perform basic emergency medical assessment and treatment skills that they acquired during the medical first responder course. All of these experiences afford students the unique opportunity to gain insight into diverse home environments that are representative of those of their future patients. 

Emergency Care Experience Description:

The Acute Care Clinical Rotations take place in hospital emergency departments during five ICE blocks throughout Year 2.  While students will not be conducting the initial assessment, they will be able to assess patients who present with various acute clinical conditions.  It is anticipated that during each 4-hour session there will likely be at least one patient with a clinical condition that correlates to the student’s current Foundation of Medicine topic.  Resident and attending emergency physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  In addition to assessing patients, students will also have opportunities to perform or assist in a variety of common emergency procedures.

Objectives:
  • Describe different interventions used at PACE to improve quality of life of older people.
  • Explain the three tenets of the framework for comprehensive and patient-centered geriatric health care.
  • Discuss the concept of the all-inclusive care, business model of the PACE program.
  • Describe effective delivery of geriatric health care in an interdisciplinary team setting.
  • Demonstrate empathy when interacting with an older adult.
  • Demonstrate effective communication when interacting with an older adult.
  • Describe how an older adult’s healthcare needs impact the approach to his/her care in the PACE program.
  • Demonstrate the ability to review, with a geriatric patient, their medication list to identify potential medication interactions and/or special considerations for geriatric patients.

Primary Care Objectives: Upon completion of PC, each student will be able to:

  1. Discuss the titles, roles and scope of work for the common positions present in a primary care practice (receptionists, schedulers, billers, nurses, medical assistants, attending physicians, resident physicians).
  2. Describe concepts of primary care pediatric and adult preventive health care.
  3. Identify barriers and enablers to effective patient-physician communication.
  4. Describe the concept of the “patient-centered medical home”.
  5. Demonstrate the ability to perform an encounter-focused H&P for patients at the internal medicine practice

Community Care Objectives:

  • Describe professional attributes of homecare nurses and EMS personnel.
  • Describe various types of home environments and discuss how the environment may impact a person’s health.
  • Describe the roles homecare and EMS play within the broader healthcare system.
  • Demonstrate the ability to accurately measure vital signs.
  • Describe basic components of a home safety assessment (homecare only).
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform any skill considered to be within the scope of practice of a medical first responder (EMS rotations only).
  • List at least 15 medications carried on a paramedic unit and their basic emergency indications (EMS rotations only).

Emergency Care Objectives:

  • Assist emergency physicians or other clinicians in the care of emergency patients.
  • Describe the initial presenting signs and symptoms of encountered/common emergency department complaints.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform a history and physical examination on an emergency department patient with an acute (or acute on chronic) condition.
  • Demonstrate the ability to discuss/interpret basic laboratory, radiographic, and EKG studies (previously covered in Foundations of Medicine course material).
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform skills learned during the Clinical Skills and Medical First Responder Courses.
  • Describe the characteristics of a team-approach to managing a seriously ill or injured emergency patient.
  • Describe how past medical records contribute to the care of the emergency patient.
  • Discuss clinical factors used to determine the need for hospitalization of an emergency patient.
  • Describe the importance of post-discharge primary or specialty care follow-up of emergency patients.
CLIN 7422 Introductory Clinical Experiences 4
Credits:
1
Directors:
Satonik
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Introductory Clinical Experiences 1-4 Description:

The Introductory Clinical Experience (ICE) Course exposes MS1 and MS2 students to a wide array of clinical activities.  Beginning early in Year 1 and continuing through the end of Year 2, students spend 3-4 hours during each ICE week participating in a clinically related activity.  ICE is organized into four-week blocks; four in Year 1 and six in Year 2.  Within each four-week ICE block, students will rotate among four core components: Longitudinal Clinical Experience, Primary Care, Clinical Rotations, and Inter Professional Experience (see Table below).  ICE is intended to provide early clinical exposure and, whenever possible, to provide real world clinical correlations to topics being covered in the Foundations of Medicine courses.

Longitudinal Clinical Experience Description (LCE):

The Longitudinal Clinical Experiences (LCE) component of ICE provides students with exposure to a model geriatric care program and affords students to work with the same geriatric patients over an extended period of time during their first two years.  LCE is offered at CentraCare, a PACE (Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly) organization. The mission of CentraCare is to provide comprehensive care for frail older adults. The care provided at CentraCare is centered on the belief that interdisciplinary care is the best type of care for this patient population, and that frail older adults are best served in their own home in the community as they age.

Students will participate in LCE during one of every 4 ICE weeks at the CentraCare location in either Kalamazoo or Battle Creek. In each session, students will observe the interdisciplinary approach to care for this patient population and interact with the interdisciplinary team members as they care for CentraCare patients. The ICE LCE at CentraCare will enable students to gain insight into the disciplines crucial to providing comprehensive care for frail older adults and to maintaining them safely in the community. In addition, the LCE is structured in a longitudinal format with continuity of relationships with the interdisciplinary team members and with specific participants with whom students will be paired. During the systems-based Foundations of Medicine Courses, each LCE session will include an educational activity that will address geriatric considers related to the system being studied.

Primary Care Experience Description (PC):

The Primary Care component of ICE occurs once during each four-week ICE block. Two half-day sessions in Family Medicine and two in Pediatrics are offered in Year 1 and six sessions in Internal Medicine are offered in Year 2. During Primary Care students will become increasingly comfortable seeing patients by themselves.  Resident and attending physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  To the extent possible, students will work with the same clinical preceptors.  Students are expected to encounter a variety of primary care patients.  Clinical preceptors will be made aware of the Foundations of Medicine course topics being covered during each four-week ICE block.  Whenever practical, preceptors will attempt to correlate these topics with actual patient encounters

Community Care Experience Description:

During Year 1, students will participate in a 3-4-hour Community Care Clinical Rotation.  During Year 1 students will spend one 4-hour session with home healthcare nurses.  This experience provides students with insight into the important role homecare nurses play in the healthcare system. Optionally, a student may schedule either a fire department medical first responder unit visit, a session with a paramedic ambulance, or both.  These sessions are intended to allow students to perform basic emergency medical assessment and treatment skills that they acquired during the medical first responder course. All of these experiences afford students the unique opportunity to gain insight into diverse home environments that are representative of those of their future patients. 

Emergency Care Experience Description:

The Acute Care Clinical Rotations take place in hospital emergency departments during five ICE blocks throughout Year 2.  While students will not be conducting the initial assessment, they will be able to assess patients who present with various acute clinical conditions.  It is anticipated that during each 4-hour session there will likely be at least one patient with a clinical condition that correlates to the student’s current Foundation of Medicine topic.  Resident and attending emergency physicians will serve as clinical preceptors.  In addition to assessing patients, students will also have opportunities to perform or assist in a variety of common emergency procedures.

Objectives:
  • Describe different interventions used at PACE to improve quality of life of older people.
  • Explain the three tenets of the framework for comprehensive and patient-centered geriatric health care.
  • Discuss the concept of the all-inclusive care, business model of the PACE program.
  • Describe effective delivery of geriatric health care in an interdisciplinary team setting.
  • Demonstrate empathy when interacting with an older adult.
  • Demonstrate effective communication when interacting with an older adult.
  • Describe how an older adult’s healthcare needs impact the approach to his/her care in the PACE program.
  • Demonstrate the ability to review, with a geriatric patient, their medication list to identify potential medication interactions and/or special considerations for geriatric patients.

Primary Care Objectives: Upon completion of PC, each student will be able to:

  1. Discuss the titles, roles and scope of work for the common positions present in a primary care practice (receptionists, schedulers, billers, nurses, medical assistants, attending physicians, resident physicians).
  2. Describe concepts of primary care pediatric and adult preventive health care.
  3. Identify barriers and enablers to effective patient-physician communication.
  4. Describe the concept of the “patient-centered medical home”.
  5. Demonstrate the ability to perform an encounter-focused H&P for patients at the internal medicine practice

Community Care Objectives:

  • Describe professional attributes of homecare nurses and EMS personnel.
  • Describe various types of home environments and discuss how the environment may impact a person’s health.
  • Describe the roles homecare and EMS play within the broader healthcare system.
  • Demonstrate the ability to accurately measure vital signs.
  • Describe basic components of a home safety assessment (homecare only).
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform any skill considered to be within the scope of practice of a medical first responder (EMS rotations only).
  • List at least 15 medications carried on a paramedic unit and their basic emergency indications (EMS rotations only).

Emergency Care Objectives:

  • Assist emergency physicians or other clinicians in the care of emergency patients.
  • Describe the initial presenting signs and symptoms of encountered/common emergency department complaints.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform a history and physical examination on an emergency department patient with an acute (or acute on chronic) condition.
  • Demonstrate the ability to discuss/interpret basic laboratory, radiographic, and EKG studies (previously covered in Foundations of Medicine course material).
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform skills learned during the Clinical Skills and Medical First Responder Courses.
  • Describe the characteristics of a team-approach to managing a seriously ill or injured emergency patient.
  • Describe how past medical records contribute to the care of the emergency patient.
  • Discuss clinical factors used to determine the need for hospitalization of an emergency patient.
  • Describe the importance of post-discharge primary or specialty care follow-up of emergency patients.
MEDU 6801 Advances and Perspectives in Medicine (Year 1)
Credits:
1
Directors:
Vanden Heuvel
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Advances and Perspectives in Medicine and Health provides students in the professional health-related sciences both exposure to and an opportunity for involvement in current topics that influence the practice, quality, and delivery of health care. The course consists of a series of events that includes seminars, workshops, plays, demonstrations, simulations, and conferences that are distributed throughout the academic year. Topics covered in the series of events include ethics, professionalism, communication, health policy, health disparities, delivery of care, biomedical/translational/clinical/community-based research, bioengineering, business and legal aspects of health care, health informatics, and global health. For some events, there are opportunities to participate in interprofessional discussion groups that include students from other health profession programs, as well as health care professionals. Students develop critical thinking skills and raise awareness to cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams, through attendance and reflection of the events in this course.

Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

  1. Students gain an understanding of complex issues relevant to the health care professions.
  2. Students gain awareness of cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams.
  3. Students express their individual attitudes, feelings, and beliefs related to issues relevant to the health care professions through reflective writing assignments.
MEDU 6802 Advances and Perspectives in Medicine (Year 2)
Credits:
1
Directors:
Vanden Heuvel
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Advances and Perspectives in Medicine and Health provides students in the professional health-related sciences both exposure to and an opportunity for involvement in current topics that influence the practice, quality, and delivery of health care. The course consists of a series of events that includes seminars, workshops, plays, demonstrations, simulations, and conferences that are distributed throughout the academic year. Topics covered in the series of events include ethics, professionalism, communication, health policy, health disparities, delivery of care, biomedical/translational/clinical/community-based research, bioengineering, business and legal aspects of health care, health informatics, and global health. For some events, there are opportunities to participate in interprofessional discussion groups that include students from other health profession programs, as well as health care professionals. Students develop critical thinking skills and raise awareness to cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams, through attendance and reflection of the events in this course.

Objectives:

Upon completion of this course, each student will be able to:

  1. Students gain an understanding of complex issues relevant to the health care professions.
  2. Students gain awareness of cross-disciplinary aspects and integration of health care teams.
  3. Students express their individual attitudes, feelings, and beliefs related to issues relevant to the health care professions through reflective writing assignments.
PROF 7310 Profession of Medicine 1
Credits:
5
Directors:
Dickson
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Profession of Medicine is a series of seven courses that span all four years of medical school. These courses provide an integrated curriculum of health systems science and the art of medicine to ensure a competent and compassionate physician that serves patients, families, and society. The curriculum is coordinated with the biomedical sciences courses during Foundations of Medicine (years 1 and 2) and the third-year clerkships during Clinical Applications.

Profession of Medicine is a series of seven courses that span all four years of medical school. These courses provide an integrated curriculum of health systems science and the art of medicine to ensure a competent and compassionate physician that serves patients, families, and society. The curriculum is coordinated with the biomedical sciences courses during Foundations of Medicine (years 1 and 2) and the third-year clerkships during Clinical Applications.

Profession of Medicine is a series of seven courses that span all four years of medical school. These courses provide an integrated curriculum of health systems science and the art of medicine to ensure a competent and compassionate physician that serves patients, families, and society. The curriculum is coordinated with the biomedical sciences courses during Foundations of Medicine (years 1 and 2) and the third-year clerkships during Clinical Applications.

The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

  • Medical Ethics and Humanities
  • Leadership
  • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
  • Evidence-based Medicine
  • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
  • Cultural Competence
  • Social Determinants of Health
  • Health Equity
  • Health Advocacy
  • Population Health
  • Preventive Medicine
  • Palliative Care
  • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
  • Biomedical Informatics
  • Health Literacy
  • Information Literacy
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

  • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
  • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

Objectives:

Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

  • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
  • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
  • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
  • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
  • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
  • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
  • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
  • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
  • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
  • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
  • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
  • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
  • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
  • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
  • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
  • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
  • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
  • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
  • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

Clinical Skills Objectives

  • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
  • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
  • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
  • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
  • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
  • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
  • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
  • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
  • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
  • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
  • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
  • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

  • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
  • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
  • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
  • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
  • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
  • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
  • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
  • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
  • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
  • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
  • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
  • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
    • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
    • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
    • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
    • Plan a community-based health initiative.
    • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
    • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
    • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
    • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.
PROF 7312 Profession of Medicine 2
Credits:
5
Directors:
Dickson
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

  • Medical Ethics and Humanities
  • Leadership
  • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
  • Evidence-based Medicine
  • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
  • Cultural Competence
  • Social Determinants of Health
  • Health Equity
  • Health Advocacy
  • Population Health
  • Preventive Medicine
  • Palliative Care
  • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
  • Biomedical Informatics
  • Health Literacy
  • Information Literacy
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

  • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
  • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

Objectives:

Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

  • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
  • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
  • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
  • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
  • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
  • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
  • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
  • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
  • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
  • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
  • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
  • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
  • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
  • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
  • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
  • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
  • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
  • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
  • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

Clinical Skills Objectives

  • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
  • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
  • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
  • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
  • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
  • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
  • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
  • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
  • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
  • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
  • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
  • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

  • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
  • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
  • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
  • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
  • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
  • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
  • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
  • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
  • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
  • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
  • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
  • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
    • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
    • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
    • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
    • Plan a community-based health initiative.
    • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
    • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
    • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
    • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

 

PROF 7320 Profession of Medicine 3
Credits:
6
Directors:
Dickson
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

  • Medical Ethics and Humanities
  • Leadership
  • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
  • Evidence-based Medicine
  • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
  • Cultural Competence
  • Social Determinants of Health
  • Health Equity
  • Health Advocacy
  • Population Health
  • Preventive Medicine
  • Palliative Care
  • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
  • Biomedical Informatics
  • Health Literacy
  • Information Literacy
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

  • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
  • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

Objectives:

Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

  • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
  • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
  • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
  • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
  • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
  • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
  • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
  • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
  • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
  • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
  • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
  • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
  • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
  • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
  • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
  • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
  • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
  • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
  • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

Clinical Skills Objectives

  • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
  • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
  • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
  • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
  • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
  • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
  • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
  • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
  • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
  • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
  • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
  • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

  • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
  • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
  • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
  • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
  • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
  • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
  • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
  • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
  • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
  • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
  • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
  • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
    • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
    • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
    • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
    • Plan a community-based health initiative.
    • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
    • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
    • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
    • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

 

PROF 7322 Profession of Medicine 4
Credits:
6
Directors:
Dickson
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

The four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine and the two Profession of Medicine courses during the third-year include a coordinated curriculum, Principles of Profession of Medicine, that includes all areas of health systems science, as well as additional components that provide a well-rounded undergraduate medical education. The components of Principles of Profession of Medicine include the following:

  • Medical Ethics and Humanities
  • Leadership
  • Scientific Method, and Clinical and Translational Research
  • Evidence-based Medicine
  • Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Science
  • Cultural Competence
  • Social Determinants of Health
  • Health Equity
  • Health Advocacy
  • Population Health
  • Preventive Medicine
  • Palliative Care
  • Law, Health Care Policy, and Health Care Financing
  • Biomedical Informatics
  • Health Literacy
  • Information Literacy
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine

In addition, the four Profession of Medicine courses during Foundations of Medicine include two additional components, Clinical Skills and Active Citizenship in Community Health.

  • Clinical Skills teaches medical students interpersonal and communication skills, physical examination skills, simple procedures, and health record documentation, which provides a solid foundation for success in the third-year clerkships.
  • Active Citizenship in Community Health integrates structured learning with service learning activities to facilitate student participation. Service learning is an instructional technique in which students participate in a community service activity, in this case with academic objectives that are part of the Profession of Medicine courses. Students gain relevant, hands-on experience while improving the health of the communities we serve. The curriculum addresses social determinants of health, cultural competence, and preventive health.

The seventh Profession of Medicine course (PROF 9340) is a capstone review of medical ethics during the spring of the fourth year of medical school.

Objectives:

Principles of Profession of Medicine Objectives

  • Describe the application of epidemiology and biostatistics to clinical practice.
  • Describe how complementary and alternative healthcare affects evidence-based patient care
  • Describe the impact of cultural humility on providing quality patient care.
  • Recognize the signs of domestic violence/abuse in patients across the spectrum of age.
  • Explain the use of epidemiology sciences in patient care and community healthcare.
  • Apply concepts of evidence-based medicine in research methodology for healthcare practitioners.
  • Explain the role and opportunities for health advocacy in the career of a physician.
  • Explain the role of health informatics in providing patient care.
  • Describe the various healthcare systems’ impact on community health.
  • Describe health disparities in specific sub-cultures of the population.
  • Describe the role of health literacy in patient care.
  • Describe through discussions the role of leadership for physicians.
  • Apply concepts learned in ethics to dilemmas faced by practicing physicians using the recommended guiding principles.
  • Describe the impact of the medical humanities in the practice of medicine.
  • Describe legal regulations governing patient care that affect providers.
  • Define what is meant by palliative care and how it relates to the spectrum of patient care.
  • Describe health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources and disease prevention/health promotion in community and global healthcare setting.
  • Demonstrate professionalism characteristics valued by the medical profession.
  • Explain how principles of quality improvement and patient safety directly impact patient care and healthcare systems.

Clinical Skills Objectives

  • Demonstrate professional and ethical behavior in providing medical care.
  • Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills to build effective and empathic relationships with patients, families, and health-care professionals.
  • Demonstrate the ability to apply scientific knowledge and method to clinical problem solving.
  • Demonstrate the ability to take a comprehensive and focused clinical history.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform a complete physical examination.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform a mental status examination.
  • Implement effective critical thinking skills in a clinical setting.
  • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and problem identification.
  • Demonstrate the ability to generate an appropriate basic differential diagnosis.
  • Demonstrate the ability to accurately document patients’ histories and physical findings, assessments, and plan of care.
  • Demonstrate the ability to give an accurate, organized and complete oral presentation on patients.
  • Perform basic clinical procedures as required.
  • Demonstrate patient-focused clinical care based on the patient’s unique demographic profile.
  • Model patient-centered care embodying advocacy, moral, ethical, legal, and population health principles.

Active Citizenship in Community Health Objectives

  • Define common terms associated with population (public) health.
  • Describe the history of population health in the United States.
  • Describe demographics of a population in a local community.
  • Describe the difference between health equity and health disparity.
  • Describe the epidemiology of common diseases within a population.
  • Discuss systematic approaches to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diseases in a population.
  • Identify the non-biological determinants of health and the economic, psychological, social, and cultural factors that contribute to the development and spread of disease.
  • Describe the role of local, state, and federal government in health care policy and the health care for individuals.
  • Develop a comparison table outlining strengths and weaknesses of different health care plan models.
  • Describe the health statistics used in population health research.
  • Describe models for community health and outcomes-based research.
  • Actively participate in an Active Citizenship project.
    • Implement effective strategies for collaboration with community partners.
    • Develop mutually beneficial relationships with community leaders and other stakeholders.
    • Describe lessons learned using the process of critical reflection.
    • Plan a community-based health initiative.
    • Prepare an oral presentation for community and faculty.
    • Develop an effective working team for implementation of a community project.
    • Implement a service project that is based on a community identified need.
    • Prepare a professional presentation based on a community project.

 

TRAN 6900 Transition to Medical School
Credits:
1
Directors:
Ziemkowski
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Transition to Medical School course prepares students to understand, participate, and excel in the medical school curriculum. It is divided into three separate weeks. These three weeks are structured as student success weeks, providing students with the structure and opportunities to connect with medical school services and support offices. Throughout these weeks, students explore topics related to their success, building their academic and relationship skills as part of the curriculum domain of Personal and Professional Management. Topics include student organizations, time management, stress management, study skills, learning skills, test-taking skills, information management and library skills, financial aid and planning, personal assessment, and emotional intelligence. Students additionally take a Medical First Responder course, which provides a brief, broad-based introduction to medical emergencies and the health care system. At the conclusion of this course, students become licensed Medical First Responders.

Objectives:

Week #1
1. Prepare all WMed students to begin Academic coursework.
2. Students completing Week #1 of Transitions to Medical School will be able to:

  • Describe the process to seek individual assistance in the area of:
    • Academic skills
    • Personal counseling
    • Student affairs processes
  • Describe purpose of Learning Community system.
  • Identify their Learning Community Scholar-­‐Advisor as a resource.
  • Use CLEARvue to access and follow schedules.
  • Access and use iBooks.
  • Understand the process of Team Based Learning.
  • Describe Financial Aid issues arising in their personal transition to WMed.
  • Apply principles of Financial Planning in their life.

Week #2:
1. Prepare all WMed students to begin Clinical Experiences.
2. Students completing Week #2 of Transitions to Medical School will be able to:

  • Take and pass the Medical First Responder examination.
  • Understand the role of physicians in society.
  • Take the WMed 2019 Medical Student Oath.
  • Accept their white coat as a symbol of their commitment to this oath.
  • Participate in team building activities.

Week #3:
1. Prepare students with the skills to excel in all areas of medical school.
2. Students completing Week #3 of Transitions to Medical School will be able to:

  • Describe resources to support impaired colleagues.   
  • Demonstrate stress relieving activities.
  • Explain the role of Racial Equity, Diversity and Inclusion in medical practice.
  • Use the NBME Test Utility to complete a sample exam.
  • Recognize the role of Emotional Intelligence and its role in Leadership.
  • Participate in a Day of Community Service.
TRAN 7900 Transition to Clinical Applications
Credits:
3
Directors:
Morris, K. Gibson
Grading:
Pass/Fail
Description:

Transition to Clinical Applications provides the bridge between foundations of medicine and the clinical application of medical knowledge. The course begins with a comprehensive summative examination over years 1-2. Focus quickly shifts to preparing students to thrive in the clinical setting. Students participate in BLS recertification and ACLS training. They are also reviewed and assessed on procedural skills utilized from day one of their clinical experience. Students are introduced to a method for studying for USMLE Step 1 during their third year, and participate in simulation, as well as group-based workshops and discussions in preparation for the Clinical Applications phase of the curriculum.

Objectives:

· Describe the professional traits associated with the roles, responsibilities and expectation of a clinician.

· Perform the clinical procedures and skills appropriate for a third year medical student.

· Use interpersonal communication skills in clinical interactions that promote quality patient care and education.

· Manage their personal health and wellbeing as they fulfill clinical duties. 

· Apply knowledge of biomedical, epidemiological, and socio-behavioral sciences to clinical care.

· Demonstrate collaborative and cooperative team member behavior as they contribute to providing quality patient care.

· Provide patient care that acknowledges awareness of health care resources available.

· Use available technology to improve patient care and learning.